The RAINFOR consortium have published the following manuals:

Although we don't fullyunderstand why more species are formed in one place than another, we doknow that geographical isolation of small populations for a long time promotesspecies formation (refer back to the Lecture on The Process of Speciation).

The canopy is just one of several vertical layers in the rainforest.

Gaps between trees mean that  some canopy animals fly, glide, or  to move about in  the treetops.

The sharp spines of a cactus keep animals from eating it.

Indigenous people such as the Yanomamo and other groups of mixed ancestry (e.g. the of Peru or the of Brazil) have perfected the use of chemical compounds found in plants and animals. Knowledge of using these plants is usually held by a medicine man (), who passes on this tradition to an apprentice, a process which has been ongoing for centuries and that forms an integral part of people’s identity.

In this process, animals breathe in oxygen made by plants.

Another significant problem identified in the GOAmazon experiment is the large amount of particles produced by interactions between the VOCs naturally released by the forest and the nitrogen oxide emitted from motor vehicles and industrial plants.

Desert plants look very different from plants that live near the ocean or in the mountains.

Why do rainforests have so many kinds of plants and animals?

The interactions among all of these factors, and their influence on important physiological activities, (particularly photosynthesis) determine how and where plants grow.

An area of rainforest the size of two ..

More than a quarter of current emissions are being taken up by the land sink, mostly by forests. But a key element appears to be saturating. This reminds us that the subsidy from nature is likely to be strictly time-limited, and deeper cuts in emissions will be required to stabilise our climate.

by plants through the process of photosynthesis.

b. Moisture and vapor pressure: Vapor pressure is another important element in forest microclimates. Since 80% of rainfall reaches the forest floor, moisture available to roots is probably not a limiting factor for growth. However, the vapor pressure (the amount of water vapor in the air), which is produced by the evaporation of rainfall and from transpiration (which is the water released during metabolic processes in the plant), depends upon the degree of air saturation, wind, and air temperature, all of which vary from the canopy to the forest floor. Generally vapor pressure decreases from lower to upper strata of the forest. Vapor pressure is much more variable in the canopy (because of high evaporation rates) than in lower, more protected layers of the forest, and at the forest floor, water vapor flux (variation) is only 25% of that in the canopy. This is partially responsible for so-called “microclimate” levels of vegetation growing on the forest trees. Some plants, for example certain epiphytes in the canopy, can tolerate diurnal (daily) changes in water vapor levels; others, living at lower levels, need a relatively constant degree of saturation.

The characteristics of the environment that influence a plant success to grow healthy

What Is Photosynthesis For Kids Facts & Information

Finally, although there are many "diagrams" and plans for decision making on saving tropical rainforests, too many of them don't incorporate basic scientific understanding into the plan to properly evaluate ecosystem function and services such as nutrient and water cycling, and to evaluate their overall sustainability.

TheTropicalRainForest - Types of Energy

We only have partial answers, but they revolve around (1) the high ecological "specialization" found in the tropics, and (2) around the extent of geographic isolation over time in the tropics, including repeated environmental shifts due to climate change.

These adaptations might make it very difficult for the plant to survive in a different place.

First rainforests arose when plants solved ..

How are emergent trees able to flourish so luxuriantly under the difficult conditions in the canopy? There is a plethora of mechanisms, such as varying photosynthetic and CO2 exchange rates in the leaves, numerous water-retention devices. A fig tree, Ficus insipida, has the highest known photosynthetic rate, which enables it to capitalize on the high light intensities available in forest gaps and thereby to fill these gaps rapidly. Canopy trees, which live in a highly variable environment, may produce different types of leaves: during the wet and dry seasons. Some produce thick leaves during the dry season, which, although water-retentive, are inefficient at capturing sunlight under the cloudy conditions which prevail during the rainy season, and are therefore replaced by thinner leaves at that time. A canopy tree, Anacardium excelsum, produces whorls of leaves enclosing dead air space. When water vapor is released from the leaves during photosynthesis, this dead air space retains much of it, moisturizing the surrounding leaves and preventing desiccation. Total leaf area is also variable. Rainforest trees probably maintain maximal leaf area for only about one-third of the year, usually prior to flowering. Leaf area may vary by 50%- 300% during the wet season.