The canopy is just one of several vertical layers in the rainforest.
The sharp spines of a cactus keep animals from eating it.
Indigenous people such as the Yanomamo and other groups of mixed ancestry (e.g. the of Peru or the of Brazil) have perfected the use of chemical compounds found in plants and animals. Knowledge of using these plants is usually held by a medicine man (), who passes on this tradition to an apprentice, a process which has been ongoing for centuries and that forms an integral part of people’s identity.
In this process, animals breathe in oxygen made by plants.
Another significant problem identified in the GOAmazon experiment is the large amount of particles produced by interactions between the VOCs naturally released by the forest and the nitrogen oxide emitted from motor vehicles and industrial plants.
Why do rainforests have so many kinds of plants and animals?
The interactions among all of these factors, and their influence on important physiological activities, (particularly photosynthesis) determine how and where plants grow.
An area of rainforest the size of two ..
More than a quarter of current emissions are being taken up by the land sink, mostly by forests. But a key element appears to be saturating. This reminds us that the subsidy from nature is likely to be strictly time-limited, and deeper cuts in emissions will be required to stabilise our climate.
by plants through the process of photosynthesis.
b. Moisture and vapor pressure: Vapor pressure is another important element in forest microclimates. Since 80% of rainfall reaches the forest floor, moisture available to roots is probably not a limiting factor for growth. However, the vapor pressure (the amount of water vapor in the air), which is produced by the evaporation of rainfall and from transpiration (which is the water released during metabolic processes in the plant), depends upon the degree of air saturation, wind, and air temperature, all of which vary from the canopy to the forest floor. Generally vapor pressure decreases from lower to upper strata of the forest. Vapor pressure is much more variable in the canopy (because of high evaporation rates) than in lower, more protected layers of the forest, and at the forest floor, water vapor flux (variation) is only 25% of that in the canopy. This is partially responsible for so-called “microclimate” levels of vegetation growing on the forest trees. Some plants, for example certain epiphytes in the canopy, can tolerate diurnal (daily) changes in water vapor levels; others, living at lower levels, need a relatively constant degree of saturation.