Primary component used in the construction of plant cell walls.

Walruses in the Arctic spend about half their lives in the chilly ocean waters. When they are in the water, walruses swim and catch fish to eat. They also eat many other types of marine life such as , which they suck out of the shell.

Plants are the dominant photosynthetic autotrophs on the Earth.

Arctic cod eat zooplankton like copepods, and are eaten by marine mammals like seals.

Have a role in the creation of the over Antarctica.

Different plants have different coping strategies, has a deep taproot and colonises ground, giving cover to less robust plants. The in its many forms is found all over the Arctic, its stems, although not thick could be hundreds of years old. A forest less than 6 cm high. The bowl shaped flowers of the and the follow the sun around the sky to optimize the warmth from it. They are a popular resting place for because of the warmth focused into the centre of the flower. Arctic bell heather thrives in hollows where a covering of snow protect it from sharp driving snow in winter, the price it pays for this blanket of snow is a shorter growing season, while it waits for the snow to melt. can survive under snow patches for several years, during summers when some of the snow doesn’t melt.

This process can initiate processes inside the air parcel.

The Wooly and the Hairy Lousewort both protect their precious flowers with a lot of silvery hairs giving the impression of wearing thermal underwear but the plant with the most impressive thermal underwear is a large groundsel found in the subarctic. The , Senecio congestus grows to about 1m in height and is covered in long white fur.

Phytoplankton greens the Arctic oceans

This image of a pink fish was taken by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (called an ROV) at the bottom of the . This photo was passed along to scientists at the Smithsonian Institution so that they could identify the fish species.

Arctic sea-ice has thinned so much over the past ..

Up to 3 million seeds will be kept safe for thousands of years inside an Arctic mountain. Seeds from all varieties of the world’s important crops will be kept in new vaults on Norway’s island of Spitzbergen. In this activity, students imagine an environmental catastrophe forces them to retreat to live in a ‘biome’. They will select seeds from the seed bank to grow for a balanced diet and brush up on their plant knowledge as well.

11 – 14 Plants and photosynthesis; plants for food.


For marine life, the Arctic Ocean is a unique place to live. It is the coldest ocean on Earth and is often capped with sea ice. During the coldest winter months there is little or no sunshine penetrating the water. During the summer months, the sun shines up to 24 hours a day.

What Is Photosynthesis For Kids Facts & Information

Animals that can survive in the Arctic Ocean are adapted for this extreme environment. Some have a special substance within their bodies that prevents their blood from freezing. Others are covered with think layers of fat and fur to keep them warm. Take a look at some of the creatures that survive in the Arctic Ocean below.

Photosynthesis and photoadaptation of marine …

In the Arctic, growing conditions for vegetation are very varied. In the southern reaches of the Arctic, can be vigorous, with small trees and stands of low growing shrubs. The further north one travels, the shorter and more sparse the ground cover becomes until in the , which is a true desert, the plants are scattered across rocky ground and the most numerous plants are the lichens. Here the carpets of flowers are only found below or other areas of .