Biology Paper 2 | Photosynthesis | Experiment - Scribd
IB Biology: Photosynthesis Experiments
The soil is composed of many different sized particles. With this simple experiment you can separate the main components of the soil and evaluate their proportions.
1 - Go into a field an collect a sample of soil. Put it in a jar of water. Stir it well and let it settle. Observe and describe the different layers of materials.
2 - In water, particles settle more quickly the bigger they are. It is possible to use this property to determine the amount of each component of the soil. Put 3 parts water and 1 part of soil in the container (try 1 cup soil and three cups of water in a quart jar); shake the container for 5 minutes and let the material set. With reference to the figure 1, after 40 seconds measure the thickness of sediment. Call this A; after 30 minutes measure again and call this B; after 24 hours measure C. Now, by subtraction, you can determine the thickness of the main layers: C-B = layer of clay, B-A = layer of silt, A = layer of gravel and sand. Using a sieve with 2 mm holes (less than 1/8 inches), you can separate the gravel from the sand and determine their ratio. On the basis of these data, calculate the content (%) of each component of the soil sample.
3 - Repeat the same experiment with soil collected in other places or that have a different geological origin (i.e: meadow, wood, river bank) or anyplace the soil has a different consistency or texture (i.e: muddy, sandy). Describe the composition of each soil and try to explain the differences. You can also apply this technique to evaluate the composition of the soil for a potted plant, and correct it. Example: if water doesn't drain well, would more sand help? If it needs to hold water longer would clay or organic matter be helpful?
4 - With a microscope, measure the size of the particles. With a clock, measure the time to drop to the bottom of a jar of water. time of the particles in water as a verses their size. Then graph with the Y-axis for the size of the particle and X-axis the time to fall.
Soil and Environment Activities
Soil description and classification
Internet keywords: soil sedimentation test.
Biology Experiment How To Prove : Photosynthesis …
The bottle garden is a close relative of the biosphere: a tiny garden growing inside abottle, a glass sphere, or a demijohn. The main difference is that soil is the maincomponent not water. The container can be kept sealed or opened like a terrarium. Ourswill be more for just plants whereas the terrarium may have animals. These gardens in abottle, can be cured and perfected as a system, they are also very decorative, in fact youcan treat them as a bonsai with not only a single tree, but whole landscapes. A carefullychosen stone becomes a rock, a small plot of moss represents a great prairie. A contorted,little plant is now a hundred year old tree. Maybe a marsh wetlands with peat moss,mushrooms and ferns is more to your liking. Maybe appropriate succulent plants with sandand rocks for a vast desert landscape. The choice is yours. There is no rigid rule aboutbeing either an open or a closed garden. It maybe useful to keep the lid on to retainwater. Or eventually, the plants grow up and need to hang down the outside.
If the container is always sealed, the challenge becomes quite demanding. In fact, it thenis necessary to obtain an equilibrium between plants and animals in order to keep aneffective cycle of substances and energy, but if this is difficult in a predominantlywater environment, it is even more difficult in a just moist environment. So, the gardenhas to contain a moist soil, plants, little animals like terrestrial isopods (i.e.: sowbug, pill bug), earthworms, etc. Plants have to be resistant to high moisture and have asmall size and limited growth. To avoid roots rotten, you can also try to refer tohydroponics and substitute the ground with small sized expanded clay or with gravel. Inthis case you will have more difficulties in hosting animal species, so it will have to beleft open. It is important you place your garden in a cool and well illuminated place, butaway from direct sunlight. Open or closed, a bottle garden is a fascinating thing, and theidea itself of a little and self-sufficient world is fascinating as well. There are peopleso fond of bottle gardens they work at them a long time, taking care of them using longand thin tools and to observe these environments till they imagine to be one of theirinhabitants.
Then choose among these main options:
1 - Opened bottle garden, containing moist ground, plants and possible little animals. Itis suited for people who love taking care of gardens and who have a flair for
the architecture of little wide spaces.
2 - Opened bottle garden, prepared in hydroponics and containing plants. It is suited forthose who tend to forget to water their plants.
3 - Sealed bottle garden, holding moist soil, plants, and some little animals. Thisexercise is suitable for people who are keen on biology and scientific research. They willhave to find appropriate plants and animals suitable for a sealed ecosystem and will haveto achieve the necessary conditions for a long survival. This research, bibliographic inpart and experimental, will keep students happily busy for long time.
The educational value of these little ecosystems is evident. They can be carried out evenin a school, where the teacher will be allowed to illustrate their characteristics topupils and encourage interesting discussions. In the web sites below, you will findimportant practical information in building your bottle gardens.
Terrariums : Miniature Worlds in a Bottle!
BBC online, how to gardening, bottle garden
Un jardin en bouteille
Le terrarium : Un monde miniature dans une bouteille!
Internet keywords: garden bottle jar, jardin bouteille bonbonne.