Hemodynamic support for pericardial effusion includes the following:

Patients who have an effusion with actual or threatened tamponade should be considered to have a true or potential emergency. Most patients require pericardiocentesis to treat or prevent tamponade. However, treatment should be carefully individualized.

Surgical treatments for pericardial effusion include the following:

The following laboratory studies may be performed in patients with suspected pericardial effusion:

Less common causes of pericardial effusion include the following:

Most acute idiopathic or viral pericarditis occurrences are self-limited and respond to treatment with an NSAID. The corticosteroid prednisone may be administered for severe inflammatory pericardial effusions or when NSAID treatment has failed.

Surgical treatments for pericardial effusion include the following:

Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) allows resection of a wider area of the pericardium than the subxiphoid approach does, without the morbidity of thoracotomy.[36] The surgeon is able to create a pleuropericardial window and address concomitant pleural pathology, which is especially common in patients with malignant effusions.

Other radiologic studies used in the evaluation of pericardial effusion include the following:

usually because of pericardial effusion

This procedure is used for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Support for the use of echocardiographic guidance is increasing, unless emergent treatment is required. Indications for pericardiocentesis include impending hemodynamic compromise (ie, pericardial tamponade), suspected infectious or neoplastic etiology, and uncertain etiology.

the cardiothoracic surgeon can create a pericardial window.

Electrical alternans, which is the beat-to-beat variation in the direction and amplitude of the QRS complex, is the electrical signature of “swinging” of the heart in the pericardial fluid. In extreme cases, it can involve the P as well as the T waves. It is specific, but not sensitive, for tamponade and can also be seen in large pericardial effusions.[24]

Pericardiocentesis (Pericardial Tap): How It's Done, …

Late gadolinium enhancement can reveal areas of inflammation, which can potentially help decide about anti-inflammatory therapy in recurrent pericarditis and can also aid in the diagnosis of effusive-constrictive pericarditis.[23]

Procedures that may be used in patients with pericardial effusion include the following:

Pericardial effusion is the presence of an ..

Early chest tube removal following cardiac surgery, around midnight on the day of surgery, may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative pleural and/or pericardial effusions requiring invasive treatment.{ref 88} This may occur even if chest tube output during the last 4 hours is below 150 mL compared with removal of the tubes next morning.

Cardiovascular symptoms in pericardial effusion can include the following:

pleural, pericardial and peritoneal effusions, ..

Complications of pericardiocentesis include ventricular rupture, dysrhythmias, pneumothorax, myocardial and/or coronary artery laceration, and infection. Recurrence rates for pericardial effusion within 90 days may be as high as 90% in patients with cancer.

Cardiovascular findings in pericardial effusion can include the following:

Pericardial effusion can develop during any of the ..

This procedure is not universally available. It may increase diagnostic sensitivity in cases of unexplained pericardial effusions, especially for neoplastic disease. It allows for visualization of pericardium and for pericardial biopsies.