What is the role of the parents.

In order to handle these decisions, firms have to make an assessment of the size of the outflows and inflows of funds, the lifespan of the investment, the degree of risk attached and the cost of obtaining funds....

When most people think of parenting, they picture changing diapers

would benefit from expanding or decreasing economic investments in the country.

Parents ARE part of the educational process.

The framework also has implications for research into the emergence of institutions and the interplay between institutions and individual behavior. Rather than viewing institutions (such as despotic systems of political control) as exogenous social determinants of individual behavior, the framework treats them as the emergent outcomes of interactions between individuals. In modern contexts, this suggests that increased research attention should be directed toward understanding the reciprocal influences of public and private investments and policies. For example, to what extent were increased public investments in health and education in the 20th century due to increased individual interest in such investments? Similarly, to what extent do government policies with regard to family planning reflect the individual behavior and interests of policy makers? How representative are policy makers of individuals in the general population? Since those institutional developments affect the costs and benefits of individual actions, there is clearly a route for reciprocal influence. We need better understanding of those reciprocal influences and of the relationship between micro- and macrolevel outcomes.

2009) There are two types of investment as stated by Virlics, A.

ing. Such policies fail to consider the relationships between men’s economic opportunities, mating systems, and the investment that children receive. We need a better understanding of men’s and women’s criteria for choice of mates and how those criteria vary with socioeconomic conditions and how the dynamics of mating systems affect exchanges between men and women and between men and their genetic children and stepchildren. To what extent are men’s motivations and behavior regarding investments in children determined by their relationships with the child’s mother versus parental concerns, and how does that mix vary with socioeconomic conditions (see Anderson et al., 1999a, 1999b, for a discussion)?

Parental investment psychology a2 essay | global …

social status and social capital. Since it is possible that concerns about relative social standing exert strong influence on modern consumption behavior and fertility decisions, an understanding of its role in contexts without material wealth should provide new insights. For example, anthropologists who have witnessed groups during the early phases of exposure to material goods, such as wrist watches, jewelry, and radios, are often impressed by how quickly those items are adopted in apparent displays of social status. What are the determinants of social standing when there is no stored wealth? Why are people motivated to pursue it? What are the costs and benefits of its pursuit? It is possible that behavior relevant to social standing had little direct impact on the regulation of fertility decisions in the past but now plays a greater role because the two trade off against one another with modern budgets.

Essay theory investment Parental ..

There is still much to be learned from the study of traditional societies. While the impacts of breast-feeding frequency and intensity on reproductive physiology have received considerable attention, the factors determining their patterning have not been systematically investigated but rather relegated to unexplained cultural differences. What determines the timing of solid food introduction, the duration of breast-feeding, and its diurnal rhythm, both across and within cultures? To what extent do features of the ecology in terms of work, child care, and food resources explain the cross-cultural variation? To what extent does its patterning respond to the individual condition of mother or baby within communities? Is it the baby’s or the mother’s behavior that exerts the most influence over the process? Similar questions can be asked of the regulation of work and food sharing with children and adolescents. Such microecological studies should provide insights into the evolved psychology underlying parent-offspring interactions and how ecology translates into varying demographic outcomes.

as predicted by parental investment theory, ..

The framework introduced here is designed to provide guidance for such research. It will be critical to analyze and measure how resources are acquired, the impacts of investments on resource acquisition, mortality rates and the impacts of investments on mortality, complementarity of male and female inputs, and variation among and within individuals over time in access to resources.