A test of the 'overjustification' hypothesis

It is proposed that several biases in social judgment result from a failure--first noted by Francis Bacon--to consider possibilities at odds with beliefs and perceptions of the moment. Individuals who are induced to consider the opposite, therefore, should display less bias in social judgment. In two separate but conceptually parallel experiments, this reasoning was applied to two domains--biased assimilation of new evidence on social issues and biased hypothesis testing of personality impressions. Subjects were induced to consider the opposite in two ways: through explicit instructions to do so and through stimulus materials that made opposite possibilities more salient. In both experiments the induction of a consider-the-opposite strategy had greater corrective effect than more demand-laden alternative instructions to be as fair and unbiased as possible. The results are viewed as consistent with previous research on perseverance, hindsight, and logical problem solving, and are thought to suggest an effective method of retraining social judgment.

The Overjustification Effect and Game Achievements | …

Generalization andpersistence of effects of exposure to self-reinforcement models.

with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis

The most detailed explanation for the overjustification effectis cognitive evaluation theory. This theory proposes that rewards (like money) areperceived as controlling or coercive, and act to decrease perceivedself-determination and undermine intrinsic motivation. Becauseunexpected tangible rewards do not motivate behavior during a task,they are less likely to be perceived as controlling, and thus lesslikely to undermine intrinsic motivation. Informational rewards(like praise) increase perceived self-determination and feelings ofcompetence, and consequently tend to enhance intrinsicmotivation.

term:experiment = the test of a hypothesis Study Sets …

Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: a test of the "overjustification&q uot; hypothesis mark r. lepper and david greene

Pretty, G. H.,& Seligman, C. (1984). Affect and the overjustification effect. , 1241-1253.
Wener, A. E.,& Rehm, L. P. (1975). Depressive affect: A test of behavioral hypotheses. , 221-227.

Reward: A test of the ‘overjustification’ hypothesis.

The problem, of course, is finding the right balance between reinforcement and overreinforcement. If we want our child to avoid playing in the street, and if we provide harsh punishment for disobeying, we may prevent the behavior but not change the attitude. The child may not play in the street while we are watching but may do so when we leave. Providing less punishment is more likely to lead the child to actually change his or her beliefs about the appropriateness of the behavior, but the punishment must be enough to prevent the undesired behavior in the first place. The moral is clear: if we want someone to develop a strong attitude, we should use the smallest reward or punishment that is effective in producing the desired behavior.

Bandura, A.,& Perloff, B. (1967). Relative efficacy of self-monitored and externallyimposed reinforcement systems. , 111-116.

How Rewards Can Backfire and Reduce Motivation - …

Lepper is the co-author of a 1973 paper entitled "Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the overjustification hypothesis" the research piece that caught my attention when I was teaching at the elementary level in Denver and propelled me back to school.

Boggiano, A. K.,& Ruble, D. N. (1979). Competence and the overjustification effect: Adevelopmental study. ,1462-1468.

Educational psychology - New World Encyclopedia

...que attitudinal phenomena. For example, the overjustification effect occurs when a person is provided with more than sufficient reward for engaging in an action that is already highly regarded (e.g., =-=Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973-=-). To the extent that the person comes to attribute the action to the external reward rather than to the intrinsic enjoyment of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior will become less favorable (...