This effect is called the stroop effect.



The data for the classic Stroop Test shows that the average for the matching set of words is 6.80 seconds and for the non-matching set of words is 9.73 seconds.

Now, put dual-task interference in the context of the Stroop Effect.

The Stroop Effect was published in 1935 as Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions by J.

Decomposing the emotional Stroop effect.

To understand the mental process involved in the Stroop effect, look at the following four letters: tree. If you are like most people it is difficult for you not to quickly read the word "tree." Most humans are so proficient at reading, at perceiving whole words, that they do not easily notice the individual letters. This is why proofreading is so hard to do. This tendency to quickly perceive words is used in testing for the Stroop effect.

The Stroop Effect Experiment | What is Psychology?

The Stroop effect (sometimes called the Stroop test) is an outcome of our mental (attentional) vitality and flexibility. The effect is related to the ability of most people to read words more quickly and automatically than they can name colors. If a word is displayed in a color different from the color it actually names; for example, if the word is written in (as shown in the figure to the left) then we have a hard time noticing the blue ink. In this instance, even when asked to name the color of the ink, we tend to say the name the word represents.

Test-Retest reliability  of the emotional Stroop task: Examining the paradox of measurement change.

Stroop effect - Research Paper Example

John Ridley Stroop first reported this effect in published in 1935. Current research on the Stroop effect emphasizes the interference that automatic processing of words has on the more mentally effortful task of just naming the ink color. The task of making an appropriate response - when given two conflicting signals - has tentatively been located in a part of the brain called the . This is a region that lies between the right and left halves of the frontal portion of the brain. It is involved in a wide range of cognitive processes.

Figure from original Stroop's article illustrating the Stroop effect

One goal of this research is to help people restore and maintain mental vitality so that they can get on with the task of healing the planet and living in a durable manner. The measures of mental vitality, of which the Stroop test discussed below is one, are a part of this research effort.

conditions when the Stroop effect was used

Flowers (1975) demonstrated a strong Reverse Stroop effect in a left-right two-alternative sequential word-to-color matching task. A word ("red" or "green") was presented on a colored background, and then, after a blank delay, one side of the screen would turn green, the other red. The subjects had to indicate which side matched the word. Here, again, although only two responses were possible, the response locations varied from trial to trial so that immediate perceptual information always formed the basis for response (in conjunction with verbal information presented moments before). Flowers demonstrated that this effect was clearly modulated by sensory similarity of interfering colors to the target colors. He did not investigate the influence of this paradigm on normal Stroop interference, however, and his task differs from traditional tasks in having a delayed, binary response. Flowers, Warner, and Polansky (1979), however, did perform a direct test of response compatibility with a numerosity analog of the Stroop task, and found reversal of the direction of interference when the response was to tap out the number of items rather than to respond verbally. (The stimuli in this case were collections of single digits, such as three twos, to which it was easier to say "two", but to tap thrice, as it turned out.)

Science fair projects - The Stroop effect and age ..

The principal findings of the present experiment are that Stroop interference in responding to the sensory color of a conflicting color word can be eliminated and that Reverse Stroop interference (interference with responding to the color named by the word) demonstrated with a pointing procedure in which the responses are color patches. In the Stroop (Color) condition of this experiment, participants were required to respond to the color that the target word was printed in, ignoring the word itself (which named a different color). In the Reverse Stroop (Word) condition, participants were to respond to the color named by the word, ignoring its incongruent physical color. In both cases the response was to move a mouse cursor to a patch of color on the computer screen. Neutral (no-conflict) versions of each condition were also performed. Insofar as the demands of the pointing task lend themselves to the direct use of color rather than verbal information, response-competition theory predicts a strong Reverse Stroop effect when participants are required to respond to the verbal information and to disregard the perceptually salient color match. Simply put, pointing to a matching color can be accomplished without ever internally labeling the color. Pointing to a named color, on the other hand, would seem to require either categorical identification of the surrounding color patches or translation of the word into a visual code. If distracting information represents a possible response, then response competition may ensue when the distracter-based response would be in conflict with the correct response.