Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids - …

is an (a completely synthetic molecule), as opposed to an , which is the name given to drugs which derive directly or indirectly from the opium poppy, such as morphine and heroin. It was originally synthesised by the German pharmaceutical company Axis during the second world war. It was first marketed as 'Dolophine' (to honour Adolph Hitler) and was used as an analgesic for the treatment of severe pain. It is still occasionally used for pain relief, although it is more widely used now as a substitute drug for people addicted to opiates (primarily heroin).

Total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids ..

College System Of Nevada, Solid-phase synthesis of codeine from morphine.

genes that allow the opium poppy to make codeine and morphine, ..

The isolation of morphine was the beginning of alkaloid chemistry, which has yielded many important medicinal substances. Although a satisfactory theory of analgesic structure or action still eludes us, experimenters have developed a number of synthetic analgesics related to morphine. The oldest is (also known as meperidine, Demerol and about 40 other names). It was synthesised in 1939 by the German chemist Otto Eisleb. It is less potent than morphine, but is still widely used for the relief of post-operative pain. By replacing one of the -OH groups with a methoxy group, morphine is converted into , another powerful painkiller. When mixed with paracetamol it goes by the trade name . When ingested, the -OCH3 group is converted back to -OH, regenerating morphine.

9 syntheses of Morphine - The Organic Synthesis Database

The most notorious derivative of morphine is . It is synthesised by acetylation of the two hydroxyl groups of morphine with acetyl chloride, hence its other names, or . Heroin was first isolated from morphine in 1874 and was originally used as a 'safe' ( non addictive) cure from morphine addiction. This was later found to be incorrect and in the 1900s heroin abuse and addiction became common. Heroin was first restricted in the UK in 1868 due to 'unprofitable diversion of workers' and an international ban followed after the first world war. It is now classified as a Class A drug and possession or trading in it results in heavy penalties in most countries.

Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total ..
13/07/2015 · Researchers discover how opium poppies synthesize morphine ..

Synthesis of thebaine and oripavine from codeine and morphine

The fact that painkilling activity depends greatly upon the exact geometry of the molecule is strikingly illustrated by the drugs and . They are very similar in structure to morphine, except that they are both mirror images of one another. The left-handed molecule, , is several times more potent than morphine and is strongly addicting. But the right-handed molecule, , has no analgesic ability and is non-addicting. This is also true for morphine, which is naturally left-handed. There is no naturally occurring right-handed form of morphine, but the Japanese chemist Kakuji Goto has synthesised it and found that it possesses none of morphine's biological properties.

Description: History, development, total synthesis, SAR studies, structure elucidation of morphine

synthesis of codeine from morphine:

Morphine is isolated from opium in large quantities (over 1000 tons per year), although most commercial opium is converted into by methylation. Morphine acts as an anesthetic without decreasing consciousness, and it is one of the most powerful analgesics known. However it also suppresses the respiratory system, and high doses can cause death by respiratory failure. Its analgesic properties are related to the ability of the molecule to fit into and block a specific receptor site on a nerve cell. This eliminates the action of the pain receptor, preventing the pain signals reaching the brain. This is similar to the way in which the body's natural painkillers (endorphins and enkaphalins) work. The shape of the morphine molecule is crucial to its ability to exactly fit into the active site on the receptor - the 'lock-and-key' mechanism. The benzene group of the morphine molecule fits snugly against a flat section of the receptor protein, whilst the bent neighbouring group of carbon atoms fits into a nearby groove. This allows the positively charged nitrogen atom to attach to a negatively-charged group on the receptor, so locking the two molecules together.

Asymmetric synthesis of either enantiomer of opium alkaloids and morphinans.

Conversion of Morphine to Codeine.

Morphine blocks deep aching pain, but has no effect on the fast pain that results from injury. One side effect of the analgesic action is that the patient often gets a feeling of detachment from the world, along with euphoria and sometimes pleasure. It is this which makes morphine, and the other drugs related to it (such as heroin), attractive to those who want to use drugs for 'recreational' reasons. However all of these drugs are highly addictive, and the body rapidly gets acclimatised to their use, such that increasingly large dosages are required for the same effect.