107: Nucleosynthesis: Elements from Stars.
Stellar nucleosynthesis - Wikipedia
Fred Hoyle, the atheist British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis and originally coined the term, "Big Bang" on March 28, 1949 had this to say at the end of his career three decades later (Note: There are about 2,000 enzymes in the simplest cell, a bacterium, and 'only' about atoms in the entire universe.):
stellar nucleosynthesis - ThoughtCo
In modern theory, there are a number of processes which are believed to be responsible for nucleosynthesisin the universe. The majority of these occur within the hot matterinside stars. The successive processes which occurinside stars are known as hydrogen burning (via the or the ), , , , and . Theseprocesses are able to create elements up to iron and nickel, theregion of the isotopes having the highest per nucleon. Heavierelements can be assembled within stars by a neutron capture processknown as the or in explosive environments, such as , by a number of processes. Some ofthe more important of these include the , which involves rapid neutroncaptures, the , which involves rapid proton captures, and the (sometimes knownas the gamma process), which involves of existingnuclei.
Stellar Nucleosynthesis - Wolfram Demonstrations Project
Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating newatomic nuclei from pre-existing (protons and neutrons). It is thoughtthat the primordial nucleons themselves were formed from the from the as it cooled belowtwo trillion degrees. A few minutes afterward, starting with only and , nuclei up to and (both with mass number 7) wereformed, but only in relatively small amounts. Then the fusionprocess essentially shut down due to drops in temperature anddensity as the universe continued to expand. This first process of may also be called nucleogenesis.
Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis, …
The first ideas on nucleosynthesis were simply that the were created at thebeginnings of the universe, but no successful physical scenario forthis could be identified. Hydrogen and helium were clearly far moreabundant than any of the other elements (all the rest of whichconstituted less than 2% of the mass of the solar system, andpresumably other star systems as well). At the same time it wasclear that carbon was the next most common element, and also thatthere was a general trend toward abundance of light elements,especially those composed of whole numbers of helium-4 nuclei.