Organic Chemistry: How can you synthesize nicotine …

AB - Background: Cigarette smoking adversely affects endochondral ossification during the course of skeletal growth. Among a plethora of cigarette chemicals, nicotine is one of the primary candidate compounds responsible for the cause of smoking-induced delayed skeletal growth. However, the possible mechanism of delayed skeletal growth caused by nicotine remains unclarified. In the last decade, localization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), a specific receptor of nicotine, has been widely detected in non-excitable cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine affect growth plate chondrocytes directly and specifically through nAChR to delay skeletal growth. Methodology/Principal Findings: We investigated the effect of nicotine on human growth plate chondrocytes, a major component of endochondral ossification. The chondrocytes were derived from extra human fingers. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and hypertrophic differentiation in human growth plate chondrocytes in suspension culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Both human and murine growth plate chondrocytes expressed alpha7 nAChR, which constitutes functional homopentameric receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA), a specific antagonist of alpha7 nAChR, reversed the inhibition of matrix synthesis and functional calcium signal by nicotine in human growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. To study the effect of nicotine on growth plate in vivo, ovulation-controlled pregnant alpha7 nAChR +/- mice were given drinking water with or without nicotine during pregnancy, and skeletal growth of their fetuses was observed. Maternal nicotine exposure resulted in delayed skeletal growth of alpha7 nAChR +/+ fetuses but not in alpha7 nAChR -/- fetuses, implying that skeletal growth retardation by nicotine is specifically mediated via fetal alpha7 nAChR. Conclusions/Significance: These results suggest that nicotine, from cigarette smoking, acts directly on growth plate chondrocytes to decrease matrix synthesis, suppress hypertrophic differentiation via alpha7 nAChR, leading to delayed skeletal growth.

Total enantioselective synthesis of (S)-Nicotine

T1 - Smoking cessation and nicotine substitution modulate eicosanoid synthesis ex vivo in man

Nicotine Mechanism | Nicotine | Organic Synthesis

The agency gets its authority from the Tobacco Control Act, which defines tobacco products as “any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any component, part, or accessory of a tobacco product.”

A New Synthesis of Nornicotine and Nicotine - Journal …

Synthesis involves numerous separate reactions, with the last reaction involving the two final cyclic structures of nicotine that are joined together during the process.

The onset of symptoms is much more rapid after the ingestion of liquid nicotine (e.g.
Next Generation Labs is not the first to make synthetic nicotine, but it appears to be the first company to target the vaping market.

E-Cigs Are Going Tobacco-Free With Synthetic Nicotine - WIRED

Synthetic nicotine tastes better in vaping liquids, says Tully—as in it tastes like nothing. The stuff extracted from tobacco may still have a whiff of plant, which creates off-flavors that liquid manufacturers mask with sweeteners and aggressive flavors. It’s not a coincidence that popular flavors are basically candy.

In adults chewing tobacco or nicotine gum, and people who ingest liquid nicotine in the form of insecticide preparations.

genetics, and nicotine biosynthesis genes

Nicotine could contribute to the progression of chronic hypertension by aggravating vasoconstriction either in sympathetic activation or inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

Nicotine can be separated and purified from tobacco, however this is obsolete as the chemical synthesis is both simpler and cheaper.

Synthetic scheme for total synthesis of Nor-Nicotine

Humans do not have the ability to synthesise sufficient nicotinic acid, this means that it is an essential component of a balanced diet. Some mammals are able to synthesise this chemical so it is not an essential component of their diets. For example, dogs can synthesise nicotinic acid from the amino-acid tryptophan. This might be an essential amino-acid, but for dogs, nicotinic acid is definitely NOT a vitamin. Bacteria in our large intestines, the colon, may convert tryptophan into nicotinic acid; this means that we could survive if sufficient bacterial activity took place. Our intestinal bacteria would require 60 mg of tryptophan to synthesise 1 mg of nicotinic acid so don’t count on them.