Testing the neutral hypothesis of phenotypic evolution
Neutral Theory: The Null Hypothesis of Molecular …
Armstrong's central state materialism involved identifying beliefsand desires with states of the brain (1968a). Smart came to agree withthis. On the other hand Place resisted the proposal to extend theidentity theory to dispositional states such as beliefs and desires. Hestressed that we do not have privileged access to our beliefs anddesires. Like Ryle he thought of beliefs and desires as to beelucidated by means of hypothetical statements about behaviour and gavethe analogy of the horsepower of a car (Place 1967). However he heldthat the dispute here is not so much about the neural basis of mentalstates as about the nature of dispositions. His views on dispositionsare argued at length in his debate with Armstrong and Martin(Armstrong, Martin and Place, T. Crane (ed.) 1996). Perhaps we can berelaxed about whether mental states such as beliefs and desires aredispositions or are topic neutrally described neurophysiological statesand return to what seems to be the more difficult issue ofconsciousness. Causal identity theories are closely related toFunctionalism, to be discussed in the next section. Smart had been waryof the notion of causality in metaphysics believing that it had noplace in theoretical physics. However even so he should have admittedit in folk psychology and also in scientific psychology and biologygenerally, in which physics and chemistry are applied to explaingeneralisations rather than strict laws. If folk psychology uses thenotion of causality, it is no matter if it is what Quine has calledsecond grade discourse, involving the very contextual notions ofmodality.
neutral gene hypothesis definition - Northwestern University
So, the null hypothesis will be rejected in favor of thehypothesis that students are not neutral about dorm life if theobserved sample mean is greater or less than 2.15 standard errors ofthe mean away from the hypothetical population mean of 4.