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Photosystems (PS) I and II are large protein complexes that contain light-absorbing pigment molecules needed for photosynthesis. PS II captures energy from sunlight to extract electrons from water molecules, splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen ions (H+) and producing chemical energy in the form of ATP. PS I uses those electrons and H+ to reduce NADP+ (an electron-carrier molecule) to NADPH. The chemical energy contained in ATP and NADPH is then used in the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to sugars.

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Molecular biology of photosynthesis. - CAB Direct

UPTON, NY—Photosynthesis in green plants converts solar energy to stored chemical energy by transforming atmospheric carbon dioxide and water into sugar molecules that fuel plant growth. Scientists have been trying to artificially replicate this energy conversion process, with the objective of producing environmentally friendly and sustainable fuels, such as hydrogen and methanol. But mimicking key functions of the photosynthetic center, where specialized biomolecules carry out photosynthesis, has proven challenging. Artificial photosynthesis requires designing a molecular system that can absorb light, transport and separate electrical charge, and catalyze fuel-producing reactions—all complicated processes that must operate synchronously to achieve high energy-conversion efficiency.

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Krauss and work on light harvesting complexes and photosystems, Krauss is perhaps best known for solving the structures of photosystems I and II. They are joined by a number of other scientists who also work on photosynthesis. and use freeze fracture to study the photosynthetic membrane and Mullineaux fluorescence microscopy to probe the structure and dynamics of membranes and the proteins embedded within.

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Importance of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process during which energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of organic carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, generating oxygen. Photosynthesis is the only way that radiant energy from the sun can be converted into organic molecules for plants and animals to consume.

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Molecular Biology of the Cell - NCBI Bookshelf

Two distinct RNA polymerases are present in the chloroplasts of higher plants. One is similar to its bacterial homologue, and its subunits are encoded by chloroplast genes. This enzyme transcribes primarily genes involved in photosynthesis, which are expressed at a high level. The second plastid RNA polymerase is nucleus-encoded and is required for expressing the nonphotosynthetic plastid functions necessary for plant growth (11). Many chloroplast genes are organized in large transcription units. These units are transcribed into large precursor transcripts, which then are processed into individual messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules. Chloroplasts contain RNA splicing systems, because several plastid genes contain introns, mostly group II and group I, which have a characteristic secondary structure (12). These introns have also been found in mitochondrial genes, and some of them are self-splicing. Splicing in the chloroplast is rather complex, as in the case of the psaA gene encoding one of the reaction center polypeptides of photosystem I in the green alga Chlamydomonas. This gene consists of three coding regions (exons) that are widely separated on the chloroplast genome and are flanked by group II intron sequences (13). They are transcribed individually, and maturation of the psaA mRNA depends on two trans-splicing reactions in which the separate transcripts of the three exons are spliced together. A particularly intriguing feature is that one of the introns is split into three parts (14). This has interesting evolutionary implications because it is thought that group II introns represent the precursors of nuclear introns and their associated splicing factors. In this view, the split chloroplast intron may represent an intermediate between group II and nuclear introns. The chloroplast genetic system has evolved at a rather slow rate and could have therefore maintained some ancient gene organization.

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Photosynthesis at Home | Molecular & Cellular Biology

Dark reaction – Calvin cycle
Second step of photosynthesis is called Calvin’s cycle. Because it does not require light, so it is called dark reaction. During dark reaction, the ATP and NADPH generated by light reaction are consumed to fix carbon dioxide into organic carbohydrates. The first fixed carbohydrate is a three carbon compound 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA). The final product is a high-energy 3 carbon compound glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) which can be used to synthesize a broad range of organic molecules. An important intermediate molecule for carbon dioxide fixation is ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), and the enzyme catalyzing the CO2 fixation is Rubisco.