t butyl methyl ether williamson ether synthesis

Methyl t-butyl ether (2-methoxy-2-methylpropane), often referred to as simply MTBE, has been widely used over the last 30 years to improve the burning characteristics of petrol.

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Fischer, A.; Oehm, C.; Selle, M.; Werner, P.; Oehm; Selle; Werner. Biotic and abiotic transformations of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2005, 12 (6), 381-389.

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Matyash, V.; Liebisch, G.; Kurzchalia, T. V.; Shevchenko, A.; Schwudke, D. Lipid extraction by methyl-tert-butyl ether for high-throughput lipidomics. J. Lipid Res. 2008, 49 (5), 1137-1146.

2-methylpropene is obtained from a variety of sources:

tert-Butyl Ethers - Organic Chemistry Portal

Methyl t-butyl ether, MTBE, is widely used as the oxygenated additive to improve the characeristics of petrol. and its production grew over 20 years from almost zero to about 16 million tonnes a year in 2002. There has now been a dramatic turnaround in the US, Canada, Japan and in Europe. It was found that even very small amounts of MTBE can contaminate drinking water. Any seepage from storage tanks in petrol stations, which is not uncommon, leads to damage to the water course, This is because MTBE is much more soluble in water than petrol and any MTBE in the ground, is carried by rainwater through the soil, whereas petrol that leaks remains close to the tank.

tert-Butyl methyl ether | C5H12O - PubChem

A further way to improve the octane rating is to add an oxygenated compound. The favoured compounds are alcohols (methanol and ehanol) and one of three ethers MTBE (methyl t-butyl ether), ETBE (ethyl t-butyl ether), TAME (t-amyl methyl ether).

tert-Butyl methyl ether CAS#: 1634-04-4

An increasing amount of ETBE (ethyl t-butyl ether) is used in Europe, particularly in France (see below). Another ether, TAME (t-amyl methyl ether) is also used in the US and Europe.

The alcohol is dehydrated to 2-methylpropene, by passing the vapour over a catalyst:

t butyl methyl ether | Sigma-Aldrich

(ii) By dehydrogenation of 2-methylpropane, which is also formed as a by-product in various processes in the petrochemical industry. The vapour is passed over a catalyst (platinum and palladium on an inert support):

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MTBE is manufactured from 2-methylpropene (isobutene) and methanol using an acid catalyst. The catalyst is an anionic ion-exchange resin and the reaction is carried out at ca 340-360 K and 8 atm pressure, with methanol in excess. The unused methanol is recovered and recycled.

tert-Butyl methyl ether | Sigma-Aldrich

This process is carried out in the liquid phase, pure oxygen, under pressure, is passed through the liquid, which has been warmed to about 400 K.
Propene is then passed into liquid 1,1-dimethylethyl hydroperoxide under pressure at about 400 K with a soluble molybdenum salt as catalyst: