Structure and Reaction Mechanism of Basil Eugenol …

The bacterial adherence assay was performed asdescribed previously ().Briefly, 25175 was diluted in tryptic soy broth ata density of 10 colony-forming units (CFU) permilliliter. Human saliva was collected from an adult donor andclarified by centrifugation. Hydroxyapatite beads were treated withclarified human saliva and rotated at 7 × g for 1 h at roomtemperature. The saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (S-HAs) werewashed three times with 0.01 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0).Bacterial suspensions with or without various concentrations ofadded eugenol were incubated with the S-HAs at 37°C for 90 min andthen the S-HAs were washed three times with potassium phosphatebuffer. The detached cells on S-HAs were dispersed, diluted andspread on Mitis Salivarius agar plates containing bacitracin (3.2mg/ml). The number of bacterial colonies was counted on each plateafter incubation at 37°C for 48 h and the CFU were thencalculated.

et al (2007) Structure and Reaction Mechanism of Basil Eugenol ..

26.06.2007 · Structure and Reaction Mechanism of Basil ..

Extraction of Eugenol From Cloves - Scribd

The synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides,including water-insoluble glucans, is one of the most importantvirulent properties of (). Water-insoluble glucans promote theadhesive interactions of bacteria with the tooth surface andcontribute to the formation of dental biofilms (). Accordingly, we examined whethereugenol inhibits the synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by crudeGtfs. The results showed that the formation of water-insolubleglucans by was significantly suppressed in thepresence of eugenol. Our results correlate well with other reportsthat eugenol suppresses the insoluble and soluble glucan synthesisof (,). synthesizes glucansfrom sucrose by the action of Gtfs. There are at least three typesof Gtfs in : Gtf B, Gtf C and Gtf D. It has beenreported that Gtf B and C are important for the synthesis ofinsoluble glucans by (,).Gtf B synthesizes primarily insoluble glucans, whereas Gtf Csynthesizes insoluble and soluble glucans. Although we identifiedthat eugenol inhibits water-insoluble glucan synthesis, it was notconfirmed whether eugenol inhibits Gtf B and/or Gtf C. Thisrequires further investigation.

(eugenol to acetic anhydride ..

In conclusion, our data demonstrated that eugenolsignificantly attenuates the acid production, adherence andwater-insoluble glucan synthesis activities of andsuppresses dental caries development in rats. These results suggestthat eugenol is a promising naturally occurring agent for thetreatment of dental caries.

Many flavonoids show vasorelaxing properties, due to different and often not yet completely clarified mechanisms of action.
26.06.2007 · Structure and Reaction Mechanism of Basil Eugenol

Structure and reaction mechanism of basil eugenol synthase.

The ability of commercial immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) to catalyze the acetylation of essential clove oil with acetic anhydride in a solvent-free system was studied, and the antimicrobial activity of the ester formed was evaluated as well. Experimental design based on two variables (eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio and temperature) was employed to evaluate the experimental conditions of eugenyl acetate ester production. The maximum conversion yield (92.86 %) was obtained using Lipozyme TL IM (5 wt%, based on the total amount of substrates), with eugenol to acetic anhydride molar ratio of 1:5 at 70 °C. The chemical structure of the eugenyl acetate ester obtained at the optimized condition, and purified, was confirmed by the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) analysis. The antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate ester was proven effective on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with means of 16.62 and 17.55 mm of inhibition halo.

williamson's synthesis of ethers explained with mechanism and illustrations.

Target Name Mechanism of Action References; ..

Walsh SE, Maillard JY, Russell AD,Catrenich CE, Charbonneau DL and Bartolo RG: Activity andmechanisms of action of selected biocidal agents on Gram-positiveand -negative bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 94:240–247. 2003. : :

Synthesis of Eugenol Esters by Lipase- Catalyzed Reaction in Solvent-Free System V

Accentuate spicy carnation notes

Because genuine vanilla extract from pods is up to 200 times more expensive than counterfeit vanilla essence using synthetic vanillin, detection of fake vanilla is important. Some fakes can be detected using chromatography, but the goalposts keep moving. One of the first detection methods relied on the fact that vanillin obtained from fresh vanilla pods had higher radiocarbon (14C) levels than vanillin from petrochemical sources (though it did not distinguish it from material obtained from fresh lignin); in response, the fakers added extra 14C to their vanillin. Analysts then examined the 13C/12C ratios in the samples by mass spectroscopy. A distinction is possible because the vanilla orchid has an unusual biosynthetic pathway for vanillin so that more 13C than usual is incorporated; "fake" vanilla extract will originate in material with a lower 13C/12C ratio; in their turn, the fakers added 13C to their molecules, usually just at one site - analysts have hit back by using site-sensitive NMR techniques (SNIF-NMR). On some levels, this problem is somewhat semantic, since the two products are identical by taste.