Hepatotoxicity of macrolide antibiotics.

Both azithromycin and clarithromycin have advantages over erythromycin principally afforded by their improved pharmacokinetic profiles and superior tolerability. Erythromycin, a highly potent antibiotic against gram-positive bacteria, has considerable disadvantages, including poor gastric stability, relatively poor potency against respiratory gram-negative pathogens such as , and a bacteriostatic mode of action. New macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, have been developed to overcome these problems. They offer broader antimicrobial spectrum of activity, improved bioavailability and an extended half-life. Azithromycin and clarithromycin have pharmacokinetics that allow shorter dosing schedules because of prolonged tissue levels.

Macrolide Antibiotics - National Institutes of Health

(Extensive review of literature on adverse events reported with macrolide antibiotics).
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Macrolides are a class of antibiotics ..

Macrolides are one of the most commonly used families of antibiotics. Currently available macrolides are erythromycin and the newer agents clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, and telithromycin.

Pharmacology of Macrolide Antibiotics - PharmaFactz

The first macrolide antibiotic, erythromycin, was isolated in 1952 from products produced by . In 1991, two semisynthetic derivatives of erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin, were brought to market. Roxithromycin was first introduced by German pharmaceutical company Hoechst Uclaf in 1987, however, it is not available in U.S.

In conclusion this thesis presents new results on protein synthesis, macrolide antibiotics and macrolide resistance.
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The following is a list of antibiotics

However, the text-book description is not valid for macrolide antibiotics, and we show that this is due to the equilibrium assumption generally used to describe non-competitive inhibitors.

Antibiotics: List of Common Antibiotics & Types - Drugs…

Antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis are discussed. Background biochemistry information on translation is provided. Antibiotics presented include puromycin, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins oxazolidinones, mupirocins, and peptide deformylase inhibitors. Mechanisms of action of the antibiotics and resistance development against the antibiotics are discussed.

Many antibiotics block protein synthesis

Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic in which the erythronolide A lactone ring has been modified to prevent inactivation by gastric acid.

Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Antibiotics | Sigma-Aldrich

Macrolide antibiotics attract great attention of numerous synthetic chemists due to their remarkable biological activity and their synthetically challenging unique structures.

Antibiotics That Inhibit Protein Synthesis | SpringerLink

Infection 2010; 38: 3-11. (Review; the macrolide antibiotics may cause cholestatic hepatitis at an estimated rate of 3.6 for erythromycin, 3.8 for clarithromycin, and 5.5 cases per 100,000 prescriptions for telithromycin, compared to 10 for sulfonamides and 2000 per 100,000 for isoniazid).

Macrolides are one of the most commonly used families of antibiotics

The bioavailability of clarithromycin is more than twice that of erythromycin, and the bioavailability of azithromycin is 1.5 times that of erythromycin. This improved absorption is related to increases in acid stability. Erythromycin has a short half-life 1-1.5h and dosing four times daily is generally required. The elimination half-lives of azithromycin and clarithromycin are greater than that of erythromycin, with azithromycin having the longest half-life. The improved pharmacokinetic profile of the newer macrolides is important because these antibiotics exhibit time-dependent bacterial killing activity.