# Inductive REASONING DEDUCTION go from general to specific

Even with impressive advances in automated formal methods, certain problems in system verification and synthesis remain challenging. Examples include the verification of quantitative properties of software involving constraints on timing and energy consumption, and the automatic synthesis of systems from specifications. The major challenges include environment modeling, incompleteness in specifications, and the complexity of underlying decision problems. This position paper proposes sciduction, an approach to tackle these challenges by integrating inductive inference, deductive reasoning, and structure hypotheses. Deductive reasoning, which leads from general rules or concepts to conclusions about specific problem instances, includes techniques such as logical inference and constraint solving. Inductive inference, which generalizes from specific instances to yield a concept, includes algorithmic learning from examples. Structure hypotheses are used to define the class of artifacts, such as invariants or program fragments, generated during verification or synthesis. Sciduction constrains inductive and deductive reasoning using structure hypotheses, and actively combines inductive and deductive reasoning: for instance, deductive techniques generate examples for learning, and inductive reasoning is used to guide the deductive engines. We illustrate this approach with three applications: (i) timing analysis of software; (ii) synthesis of loop-free programs, and (iii) controller synthesis for hybrid systems. Some future applications are also discussed. 1

## An essay about "Deductive and Inductive Reasoning ..

### (of Deduction, Induction, and other Reasoning ..

However, the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs â€“ mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Simple example[edit]An example of a deductive argument: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man.

### Deductive vs inductive - CONCEPT 3 Logical reasoning ..

Synthesis is an abductive sensemaking process. Abduction can be thought of as the "step of adopting a hypothesis as being suggested by the facts . . . a form of inference."[7] To better understand abduction, it's necessary to understand the duality of the forms of logic that have been more traditionally embraced by western society in argument: deduction and induction.

## Science and Reasoning - LSU Geology & Geophysics

Peirce (1839-1914), America’s greatest philosopher of science, even coined a new word to express the imaginative mode of reasoning involved in such mental leaping: abduction, or 'leading from' (one place to another), to contrast with the more sedate and classical modes of deduction, or logical sequencing, and induction, or generalization from accumulated particulars (all from the Latin , 'to lead').”