# Inductive REASONING DEDUCTION go from general to specific

Even with impressive advances in automated formal methods, certain problems in system verification and synthesis remain challenging. Examples include the verification of quantitative properties of software involving constraints on timing and energy consumption, and the automatic synthesis of systems from specifications. The major challenges include environment modeling, incompleteness in specifications, and the complexity of underlying decision problems. This position paper proposes sciduction, an approach to tackle these challenges by integrating inductive inference, deductive reasoning, and structure hypotheses. Deductive reasoning, which leads from general rules or concepts to conclusions about specific problem instances, includes techniques such as logical inference and constraint solving. Inductive inference, which generalizes from specific instances to yield a concept, includes algorithmic learning from examples. Structure hypotheses are used to define the class of artifacts, such as invariants or program fragments, generated during verification or synthesis. Sciduction constrains inductive and deductive reasoning using structure hypotheses, and actively combines inductive and deductive reasoning: for instance, deductive techniques generate examples for learning, and inductive reasoning is used to guide the deductive engines. We illustrate this approach with three applications: (i) timing analysis of software; (ii) synthesis of loop-free programs, and (iii) controller synthesis for hybrid systems. Some future applications are also discussed. 1

## An essay about "Deductive and Inductive Reasoning ..

### (of Deduction, Induction, and other Reasoning ..

However, the inductive reasoning mentioned here is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs â€“ mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Simple exampleAn example of a deductive argument: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man.

### Deductive vs inductive - CONCEPT 3 Logical reasoning ..

Synthesis is an abductive sensemaking process. Abduction can be thought of as the "step of adopting a hypothesis as being suggested by the facts . . . a form of inference."[7] To better understand abduction, it's necessary to understand the duality of the forms of logic that have been more traditionally embraced by western society in argument: deduction and induction.

## Science and Reasoning - LSU Geology & Geophysics

Peirce (1839-1914), America’s greatest philosopher of science, even coined a new word to express the imaginative mode of reasoning involved in such mental leaping: abduction, or 'leading from' (one place to another), to contrast with the more sedate and classical modes of deduction, or logical sequencing, and induction, or generalization from accumulated particulars (all from the Latin , 'to lead').”

### OfficeMix : Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Humankind has employed a variety of approaches in an effort to understand both itself and the Universe at large. In general, four methods are used based upon , , or . The scientific method is the logical successor to the other three. It can be generally defined as a systematic procedure whereby knowledge is accumulated using unbiased and objective reasoning. In addition, it provides a methodology for proving theories and finding scientific truth. Scientific truths are developed within very rigorous and logical constraints defined by the scientific method and at the core are the techniques of inductive and deductive reasoning.

### Logic dictionary definition | logic defined

Philip Johnson- Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Deduction, Psychology Press 1. ISBN 9. 78- 0- 8. Zarefsky, David, Argumentation: The Study of Effective Reasoning Parts I and II, The Teaching Company 2. Bullemore, Thomas, * The Pragmatic Problem of Induction. External links.

### ABC of Thinking - Andrew Roberts

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to or ) is reasoning in which the are viewed as supplying strong evidence for the truth of the conclusion. While the conclusion of a deductive argument is certain, the truth of the conclusion of an inductive argument is , based upon the evidence given.