All photosynthesis in green plants and algae occurs in chloroplasts.

II. Photosynthesis explores the activity of the Light Independent Reaction using DPIP. DPIP is a chemical that changes colour when it accepts electrons.

Light and oxygenic photosynthesis: energy dissipation as …

These proteins that gather light for photosynthesis are embedded within cell membranes.

Anoxygenic photosynthesis - an overview | ScienceDirect …

The high quality LED lights do not have as much of the heat problems of Metal Halide & even fluorescent lights (via ballasts), often last 50,000 hours, and some (in high-end aquarium LED adjusted configurations), and are very compact.
In fact this lower use of much of the yellow/green light (as a percentage) often makes some "high-end" LEDs look less bright to the human eye, when in fact the opposite is true as per useful light energy (PUR).

Anoxygenic photosynthesis uses energy from ..

The newer Halogen Quartz Iodide (HQI) lighting systems are used mostly on saltwater reef aquariums. HQI bulbs are commonly offered with spectrums of 10,000K and 20,000K. These high-intensity bulbs help corals thrive, but give off less heat than regular metal halide bulbs. HQI Double Ended Metal Halide bulbs have been used in Europe for many years have gained popularity in the U.S. among aquarium hobbyists in the last several years.
Double Ended MH HQI bulbs offer many of the same features as standard mogul base Metal Halide bulbs but are designed differently. These bulbs are much smaller than mogul base screw in Metal Halides and are double ended.
The benefits of using HQI Metal Halide bulbs are that they offer a more clean color spectrum (useful light energy/responsive wavelength), are more efficient, produce slightly less heat, and last longer than standard Mogul Base metal halide lamps.

Oxygen diffuses out of the plant as a waste product of photosynthesis and ATP is synthesised from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Oxygenic Photosynthesis — Light ..

An example of a new emitter developed just for photosynthetically sensitive reef inhabitants is the 'Osram Olson NP Blue'. This patented emitter primarily targets the FULL spectrum of blue necessary for phototropic response, as well it also contains light energy in the full spectrum of PAR, unlike other blue emitters that have come before it.

Light Absorption for Photosynthesis

Since LEDs emit light only in a very specific direction, the installer also has the option to illuminate a precise area using lenses in specific degrees of angle.
For this reason the LED does not need to produce as many lumens/photons of light as most conventional lights. In conventional lights, many lumens of important light energy are lost due to lack of focus, including all power compacts and fluorescent lights in general, but need higher lumen outputs to achieve the same lighting parameters.

The fit to the specific absorption doublet feature at slightly less than 2.2 microns indicates the identification of the mineral Kaolinite.

Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis ..

Photosynthetic invertebrates (many corals, anemones, clams, nudibranch, etc.) also need more blue (400-490nm) than "higher" plants especially as tanks increase in depth, such as the 465-485 blue spectrum. Not only is blue/actinic lighting beneficial to photosynthetic invertebrates, it is also aesthetically pleasing to the eye and the 420 nm blue in particular brings out the colors of many corals/clams.
Osram Oslon now has a "patent pending" LED emitter (the NP Blue) that is the first 'blue' emitter SPECIFICALLY designed for the full PAR spectrum required by marine photosynthetic invertebrates (see for more)

It is capable of channeling the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Download Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light …

PAR is an important and accepted starting point to estimate light energy for our photosynthetic aquarium keeping needs. We measure PAR via µMolm which is a unit of measure (more about measurement later).

If both oxygen and methane are detected together, it is a strong indication that photosynthesis is occurring.

Anoxygenic photosynthesis - an overview - …

Implications of these tests:

This controlled test has aquatic implications, as photosynthesis is the same whether it be a terrestrial plant, a freshwater aquatic plant, or symbiotic zooanthellic algae found in corals.
The main difference would be that light energy is quickly absorbed by water, especially red light waves and many modern high-end LED fixtures such as an EcoTech Radion, AI Sol Vega Blue, ZetLight ZT 6600, AAP Fiji Blue, AAP Ocean Blue NP, and AAP Reef White 2000 produce the light energy for deeper aquarium water penetration more comparable to the popular 20k "Radium" Metal Halides.