Errors are integral part of language acquisition

The cognitive and information processing models generally, which originate from psychology (and neurolinguistics), claim, on the other hand, that language learning is no different from other types of learning, and is the result of the human brain building up networks of associations on the basis of input. Information processing models see learning as the shift from controlled processes (dealt with in the short term or working memory and under attentional control) to automatised processes stored in the long term memory (retrieved quickly and effortlessly). Through this process, what starts as declarative knowledge (knowing 'that') becomes procedural knowledge (knowing 'how') which becomes automatic through repeated practice. Recently, connectionist models have further assumed that all learning takes place through the building of patterns which become strengthened through practice. Computer models of such processes have had some success in replicating the L1 and L2 acquisition of some linguistic patterns (e.g. past tense, gender; ; ). The view of language encapsulated within connectionism, as this view of cognition is called, is fundamentally different from linguistic models, where language is seen as a system of rules rather than as patterned behaviour.

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Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five mainhypotheses:

Linguistic Hypotheses on the Origins of Language | …

In order to explain variability in rate and outcome, SLA researchers have focused primarily on the role of external factors in the acquisition process. As we have seen, one line of research inquiry has addressed questions about the nature of the input and the role of interaction in the learning process. Other lines of inquiry have investigated the role of learner variables, such as intelligence, aptitude, motivation, attitude, as well as the social and sociolinguistic variables which impact on them (; ; ; ; ). These variables have been found to play an important role in determining how successful learners are. For example, recent motivation research has witnessed something of a boom since the nineties, with research questions becoming more sophisticated and addressing more directly language teaching issues. Motivation is now seen as situation-dependent as well as a relatively stable learner trait, and much work has been carried out investigating issues such as the role of tasks in motivating learners, the role of the teacher in motivating learners, or the role of learning strategies in enhancing motivation ( and ). If motivation, as well as other learner variables, is now widely recognised as playing a determining role in SLA, more research needs to be carried out on its pedagogical implications, i.e. on how to motivate learners.

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Another salient difference when comparing L1 and L2 outcomes is that whereas native competence is the norm in the L1 context, it is the exception in the case of L2s. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as . Some structures seem very difficult to acquire in the L2, even when there is plenty of input. In programmes in Canada, in which English-speaking children are taught the normal curriculum through French and are therefore exposed to large amounts of input within a communicative focus, end results have been mixed. Although these children become very proficient and fluent in French, their accuracy in some areas (e.g. gender, adverb placement etc.; ; ; ) remains far from native-like, suggesting that some aspects of language resist spontaneous acquisition.

Make sure your hypothesis is testable with research and experimentation.
Real-world language research is important and complex, and the underlying ideas are nuanced.

Second language critical period hypothesis essay

Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert inthe field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisitionand development. Much of his recent research has involved the study ofnon-English and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years,he has published well over 100 books and articles and has been invitedto deliver over 300 lectures at universities throughout the United Statesand Canada.

Aggregates generate their 3 page a2 english language coursework hypothesis with a novel composite.

The Critical Period Hypothesis ..

The robust research findings regarding the systematicity of the route followed by L2 learners do not have straightforward implications for language teaching, however. One logical possibility might be that curricula should closely follow developmental routes; this is not sensible however, given (a) the incomplete nature of our knowledge of these routes, (b) the fact that classrooms are typically made up of learners who are not neatly located at a single developmental stage, and (c) the fact that developmental stages typically contain non-target forms. (For example, typical stages in the acquisition of negation will be: 1. 'no want pudding'; 2. 'me no want pudding' 3. 'I don't want pudding', with forms 1 and 2 representing normal developmental stages, therefore to be expected in early L2 productions, but which will not be taught). Other possibilities are that curricula should be recursive with inbuilt redundancy, and that teachers should not expect immediate accuracy when teaching a new structure, or that they should give up on closely prescribed grammar curricula and opt instead for functional and/or task-based syllabus models. Many teachers/language educators have actively welcomed the role of 'facilitator' rather than 'shaper' of development, implied by such models.

Similar sequences of acquisition have been found for a wide range of structures in a range of languages (see e.g. ; .

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According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second languageperformance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquiredsystem' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious processvery similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their firstlanguage. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - naturalcommunication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of theirutterances, but in the communicative act.