Synthesis of Acid Derivative of Lactose by …


an artificial sweetener. Also sold commercially as Sunette or Sweet One. It has no nutritional value or calories. Might increase cancer risk in humans.

enzyme derived from kiwi fruit used in the food industry.
comes from the adrenal glands of hogs, cattle and sheep
extracted from seaweeds
a group of simple proteins composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur that are soluble in water. Albumen is usually derived from eggwhites (ovalbumin), but can also be found in plasma (serum albumin), milk (lactalbumin) and vegetables and fruits.
can be extracted from urea (from the urine of most animals, including humans) or from herbs such as comfrey or uva ursi

A compound expressed from the leaf of the aloe plant.
naturally-occurring chemicals derived from fruit or milk
manufactured by dissolving in .
used in the purification of drinking water and in the paper manufacturing industry. Produced by adding to .
morbid concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale
'building blocks' of proteins
fluid surrounding the fetus within the placenta
enzyme derived from either animal (usually porcine pancreas), fungal, bacterial or plant source (barley malt).
small fish of the herring family
fiber obtained from angora rabbits
a vegetable dye from a tropical tree
water-soluble plant pigments
liquid unsaturated fatty acid that can be found in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals
product is made by humans from ingredients. Like products, it would not exist without human intervention.
a water-soluble vitamin found in vegetables and fruits or made synthetically
an artificial sweetener known as NutraSweet prepared from and phenylalanine (vegan according to the NutraSweet Company)
Aminosuccinate acid. An amino acid occurring in animals and plants. Usually synthesized from glutamate for commercial purposes.
savory jelly derived from meat and fish
skin of still born or very young lambs from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia

Lactose esters: synthesis and biotechnological applications

Lactose esters: synthesis and ..

Regulation of the Synthesis of the Lactose Repressor

N2 - Due to stricter environmental legislation and implementation of the “waste valorization” concept, recycling of dairy effluent, whey, has drawn a considerable attention. The main constituent of whey is lactose, which is responsible for high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. Therefore, without going to its direct disposal into aquatic system, synthesis of nutraceuticals from lactose is considered a commendable challenge. Lactose-derived nutraceuticals, such as galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), lactulose, lactitol, lactosucrose, lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, lactone, and tagatose, have been synthesized through different chemical and biochemical reactions, such as hydrolysis, transgalactosylation, oxidation, reduction, isomerization, and hydrogenolysis, considering raw whey or isolated lactose as feedstock. Pure biocatalyst (enzyme) and inorganic catalyst have been used for the synthesis of lactose-based nutraceuticals by different types of operations, such as conventional batch and continuous bioreactors with free catalyst, continuous packed bed bioreactor with immobilized catalyst, moving bed reactor, and membrane-assigned bioreactor. Moreover, in many cases, lactose-based nutraceuticals (lactic acid, lactosucrose, lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, and tagatose) have been synthesized by microbial fermentation process. Free microbial cell in batch and continuous fermentor and whole cell immobilized packed bed bioreactor have been used for this purpose. This review presents and compares different process-related technological aspects for synthesis of lactose-derived nutraceuticals from whey.

The metabolism of galactose: 1. Lactose synthesis from …

AB - Due to stricter environmental legislation and implementation of the “waste valorization” concept, recycling of dairy effluent, whey, has drawn a considerable attention. The main constituent of whey is lactose, which is responsible for high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. Therefore, without going to its direct disposal into aquatic system, synthesis of nutraceuticals from lactose is considered a commendable challenge. Lactose-derived nutraceuticals, such as galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), lactulose, lactitol, lactosucrose, lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, lactone, and tagatose, have been synthesized through different chemical and biochemical reactions, such as hydrolysis, transgalactosylation, oxidation, reduction, isomerization, and hydrogenolysis, considering raw whey or isolated lactose as feedstock. Pure biocatalyst (enzyme) and inorganic catalyst have been used for the synthesis of lactose-based nutraceuticals by different types of operations, such as conventional batch and continuous bioreactors with free catalyst, continuous packed bed bioreactor with immobilized catalyst, moving bed reactor, and membrane-assigned bioreactor. Moreover, in many cases, lactose-based nutraceuticals (lactic acid, lactosucrose, lactobionic acid, gluconic acid, and tagatose) have been synthesized by microbial fermentation process. Free microbial cell in batch and continuous fermentor and whole cell immobilized packed bed bioreactor have been used for this purpose. This review presents and compares different process-related technological aspects for synthesis of lactose-derived nutraceuticals from whey.

Where there was one cell there are two, then four, then eight,..

Milk protein and lactose. The mechanisms of synthesis and secretion of milk proteins and lactose in the human are similar to those in other species.

Synthroid - FDA prescribing information, side effects …

derived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. Can be synthetically produced from .
a compound produced from .
acid produced by the fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes or molasses.
enzyme derived from fungus of yeast. It prevents lactose from being broken down into glucose and galactose. It is used in the dairy industry for people who are lactose intolerant.
.
milk sugar. A type of sugar only found in milk.
fat extracted from sheep's wool.
fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle.
the fresh berries and leaf extract of the laurel tree.
constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and oil. Derivatives are used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents and .
compound usually produced from coconut oil (which is naturally high in lauric acid) or from a petroleum based version of lauric acid
tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs and goats etc)
fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. Mainly obtained commercially from soya bean, peanut and corn
porous rock formed over thousands of years from the compression of shells and bones of marine animals.
enzyme from the stomachs, tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Can also be from derived from plants, fungus or yeast. It breaks down fat to glycerol and fatty acids.
substance of deep yellow color found in egg yolk. Obtained commercially from marigold.

Biological Molecules - You Are What You Eat: Crash …

fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating with carbon dioxide
insect secretion
cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining and .
the sodium salt of . Produced by reacting with . Used as a food preservative. bicarbonate of Soda
Soda Ash. A sodium salt of .
chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
the sodium salt of
the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated
prepared by sulfation of followed by neutralization with
an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of using or .
prepared from and
the sodium salt of .
white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
manufactured by reacting with to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
oil found in the head of the various species of whales
fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
.
found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
salt of stearic acid
fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of and , chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
made from and
obtained by reacting with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from . Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.

kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of . It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through .
a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.


ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.