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It has been demonstrated that certain sports increase the likelihood of a child or young adult developing spondylolysis or isthmic spondylolisthesis.

Above Spondylolisthesis at L L

The following is a classification of Spondylolisthesis and Spondylolysis according to cause:

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6) St. John TA, Alber TJ. "Reduction of Spondylolisthesis with Pedicle Screw Fixation And Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion." In Surgical Techniques for the Spine; Haher TR, Merola AA; Thieme – New York 2003.

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In 1997, Fischgrund et al. [49] was awarded the prestigious Volvo Award for their paper that looked at the effectiveness of PLF as a treatment intervention for patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. They also looked at whether or not the addition of posterior instrumentation (pedicle screws and rods) to the PLF procedure would enhance post-surgical clinical outcomes. The results indicated that good to excellent outcomes were achieved in 76% of the patients at the two-year follow-up. However, although instrumentation led to higher rates of successful fusion (which is a good thing), it did not improve clinical outcomes of these patients. [49]

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It is beyond the scope of this webpage to get into all six of these. However, I will cover in depth the two most common types of spondylolisthesis that clinicians encounter on a daily basis: the isthmic spondylolisthesis and a degenerative spondylolisthesis. Let's talk about them!

Degenerative Spondylolisthesis of the Lumbar Spine

Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis usually cause no symptoms in children; however, many seek medical evaluation because of a postural deformity or gait abnormality. Pain most often occurs during the adolescent growth spurt and is predominantly backache, with only occasional leg pain. Symptoms are exacerbated by high activity levels or competitive sports and are diminished by activity restriction and rest. The back pain probably results from instability of the affected segment, and the leg pain is usually related to irritation of the L5 nerve root.

- crush fracture / isthmic spondylolisthesis

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76) Gill GG. Long-Term Follow-Up Evaluation of A Few Patients with Spondylolisthesis Treated by Excision of the Loose Lamina with Decompression of the Nerve Roots without Spinal Fusion 1984; 182:215-219.

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42) Grobler L, Robertson P, Novotny J, et al. Etiology of spondylolisthesis. Assessment of the role played by lumbar facet joint morphology. Spine 1993;18:80-92.

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The typical clinical presentation of a spondylolisthesis is pain generally localized in the lumbar paraspinals, gluteals, and posterior aspects of the thighs. The symptoms usually increase with standing or walking.