Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals | Biochemical Journal

Georges B, Galland S, Rigault C, Le Borgne F and Demarquoy J (2003) Beneficial effects of l‐carnitine in myoblastic C2C12 cells. Interaction with zidovudine. Biochemical Pharmacology 65: 1483–1488.

is essential to the synthesis of carnitine.

Several enzymatic reactions are needed for l ‐carnitine synthesis ..

Inhibition of carnitine biosynthesis by valproic acid in rats—The ..

Carnitine biosynthesis. Several enzymatic reactions are needed for ‐carnitine synthesis. (1) Lysyl methyltransferases, (2) trimethyllysine dioxygenase, (3) hydroxyl ‐trimethyllysine aldolase, (4) 4‐trimethylammoniobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase and (5) γ‐butyrobetaine hydroxylase.

Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway

N2 - Liver and testis slices convert 6 N trimethyl lysine into 4 N trimethylaminobutyrate and carnitine. Adipose, skeletal muscle, heart, or kidney tissues metabolize trimethyl lysine into trimethylaminobutyrate but not into carnitine. Trimethylaminobutyrate hydroxylation, forming carnitine, occurs in liver and to a minor degree in testis. Liver is the primary site of carnitine biosynthesis in the rat.

Immobilization of the transformed strain in κ-carrageenan gels allowed continuous operation for l -carnitine production with no plasmid loss.
Strijbis K, Vaz FM and Distel B (2010) Enzymology of the carnitine biosynthesis pathway. IUBMB Life 62: 357–362.

Phospholipid Synthesis - The Medical Biochemistry Page

L-carnitine supplementation led to a significant increase in protein synthesis indicating that the increased dietary fat oxidation in slightly overweight subjects was not accompanied by protein catabolism.

Mostnon-vegetarians consume about 100 to 300 mg of carnitine a day, and the body is able tosynthesize this nutrient if dietary intake is inadequate.

l‐carnitine: Structure and Function

Liver and testis slices convert 6 N trimethyl lysine into 4 N trimethylaminobutyrate and carnitine. Adipose, skeletal muscle, heart, or kidney tissues metabolize trimethyl lysine into trimethylaminobutyrate but not into carnitine. Trimethylaminobutyrate hydroxylation, forming carnitine, occurs in liver and to a minor degree in testis. Liver is the primary site of carnitine biosynthesis in the rat.

Impaired L-carnitine synthesis by the kidneys may also contribute to the potential for carnitine ..

excretion of L-carnitine and acylcarnitines by ..

Kuwajima M, Lu K, Harashima H et al. (1996) Carnitine transport defect in fibroblasts of juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 223: 283–287.