subtilis is substantially equivalent to synthetic riboflavin.

All other side products found were derived from riboflavin, resulted from the purification procedure and were also found in riboflavin obtained by chemical synthesis.

The industrial riboflavin synthesis using A

(1994) Functional organization of the riboflavin biosynthesis operon from  Bacillus subtilis SHgw.

Biosynthesis of riboflavin - ResearchGate

The data in Table 2 give an indication of the acute toxicity of synthetic riboflavin (phosphate) and some of its impurities but are not relevant for evaluating riboflavin derived by fermentation.

and also the regulation of riboflavin synthesis


an artificial sweetener. Also sold commercially as Sunette or Sweet One. It has no nutritional value or calories. Might increase cancer risk in humans.

enzyme derived from kiwi fruit used in the food industry.
comes from the adrenal glands of hogs, cattle and sheep
extracted from seaweeds
a group of simple proteins composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur that are soluble in water. Albumen is usually derived from eggwhites (ovalbumin), but can also be found in plasma (serum albumin), milk (lactalbumin) and vegetables and fruits.
can be extracted from urea (from the urine of most animals, including humans) or from herbs such as comfrey or uva ursi

A compound expressed from the leaf of the aloe plant.
naturally-occurring chemicals derived from fruit or milk
manufactured by dissolving in .
used in the purification of drinking water and in the paper manufacturing industry. Produced by adding to .
morbid concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale
'building blocks' of proteins
fluid surrounding the fetus within the placenta
enzyme derived from either animal (usually porcine pancreas), fungal, bacterial or plant source (barley malt).
small fish of the herring family
fiber obtained from angora rabbits
a vegetable dye from a tropical tree
water-soluble plant pigments
liquid unsaturated fatty acid that can be found in the liver, brain, glands, and fat of animals
product is made by humans from ingredients. Like products, it would not exist without human intervention.
a water-soluble vitamin found in vegetables and fruits or made synthetically
an artificial sweetener known as NutraSweet prepared from and phenylalanine (vegan according to the NutraSweet Company)
Aminosuccinate acid. An amino acid occurring in animals and plants. Usually synthesized from glutamate for commercial purposes.
savory jelly derived from meat and fish
skin of still born or very young lambs from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia

(1980) Acute toxicity of riboflavine, some intermediates and by-products of the synthesis, degradation products and metabolites.

[Cloning of structural genes involved in riboflavin synthesis ..

Dr. Frank explained the biochemical relation of vitamins and nucleic acids, and specifically used the example of the B-complex vitamins. In metabolizing Vitamin B3 (niacin or niacinamide), for example, the body requires energy for conversions that properly break down the vitamin into its usable components. Thus, cells convert niacin to coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which may then be converted to NADP via a phosphate transfer from ATP. The initial reaction involves nicotinic acid with 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate to produce nicotinic mononucleotide (NMN).

He notes that phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate also is the basic compound for purine synthesis (and is formed from ribose-5-phosphate plus ATP). This indicates that the energy of level of a cell plays an essential role in the synthesis of NMN (the precursor of NAD), and therefore that the greater the rate of ATP synthesis, the greater the rate of synthesis of NMN. The next step in the metabolism of niacin involves NMN reacting with ATP to create desamido-NAD, where ATP acts both as a source of energy and a component of the NAD coenzyme.

Ultimately ATP is crucial to the formation of the NAD coenzyme (an important coenzyme in cellular energy metabolism). Thus, Dr. Frank states that higher Krebs cycle activity and oxygen-energy metabolism favors synthesis of NAD, given the availability of niacin (or niacinamide). Moreover, a higher level of niacin (or niacinamide) likewise would favor its own conversion into the active NAD coenzyme. Dr. Frank points to the evident relation of energy metabolism and NAD synthesis, wherein increased nucleic acid and nucleotide intake produces increased energy metabolism and ATP production, which in turn enables both more effective metabolism of niacin and further increases in cellular NAD. He therefore finds a very evident relationship between dietary nucleic acids and NAD with respect to energy production and related metabolism (151).

Dr. Frank relates similar processes for other vitamins (e.g., riboflavin and pantothenic acid) that he finds representative of the B-complex. From his own clinical experience, he relates his observation of definite increases in energy among subjects receiving high-dosage B-complex vitamins (e.g., 50–200 mg of thiamin daily plus other balanced B factors) given with high nucleic acid intake. His clinical observations correspond with his technical analysis of the synergistic biochemical relations between dietary nucleic acids and B vitamins in energy production.

Dr. Frank also discusses other vitamins in his books (e.g., Vitamin A). He concludes: “It is apparent that nucleic acid and nucleotide intake are most importantly related to vitamin usage and function and that the greater the nucleic acid intake, within limits not yet determined, the greater the synthesis and usage of many and perhaps most coenzymes” (153).

Also see: HPDI’s high-potency and unique multivitamin formulas: , , and .

Rapid One-Pot Synthesis of Riboflavin Isotopomers.

Because riboflavin is under , dilute solutions (0.015-0.025% w/w) are often used to detect leaks or to demonstrate coverage in an industrial system such a chemical blend tank or bioreactor. (See the section on Testing and Inspection for additional details.)

28/11/2017 · Riboflavin synthesis ..

derived from hair, both human and animal, or feathers. Can be synthetically produced from .
a compound produced from .
acid produced by the fermentation of whey, cornstarch, potatoes or molasses.
enzyme derived from fungus of yeast. It prevents lactose from being broken down into glucose and galactose. It is used in the dairy industry for people who are lactose intolerant.
.
milk sugar. A type of sugar only found in milk.
fat extracted from sheep's wool.
fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle.
the fresh berries and leaf extract of the laurel tree.
constituent of vegetable fats, especially coconut oil and oil. Derivatives are used as a base in the manufacture of soaps, detergents and .
compound usually produced from coconut oil (which is naturally high in lauric acid) or from a petroleum based version of lauric acid
tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs and goats etc)
fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. Mainly obtained commercially from soya bean, peanut and corn
porous rock formed over thousands of years from the compression of shells and bones of marine animals.
enzyme from the stomachs, tongue glands of calves, kids and lambs. Can also be from derived from plants, fungus or yeast. It breaks down fat to glycerol and fatty acids.
substance of deep yellow color found in egg yolk. Obtained commercially from marigold.