"The Three Es" Hypothesis of Tumor Immune Surveillance

The field of tumor immunology has grown around the idea that one of the important roles of the immune system is to eliminate cancer. This idea was difficult to reconcile with the accepted notion that the immune system evolved to distinguish self from nonself and therefore tumors derived from self-tissues would not be recognized. Lack of appropriate animal models prevented experimental testing of cancer immunosurveillance. This changed with the realization that the immune system evolved to recognize danger and with the advent of mouse models deficient in one or more immune function, which showed predicted increases in susceptibility to cancer. Simultaneously, technical advances that enabled the study of the human immune system provided data for the existence of tumor-specific T cells and Abs and led to molecular identification of tumor Ags, fully validating the cancer immunosurveillance hypothesis. Immunotherapy designed to strengthen cancer immunosurveillance has achieved unprecedented clinical successes.

Immunosurveillance hypothesis by Rhonda McIntyre - …

Mar 06, 2007 · "The Three Es" Hypothesis of Tumor Immune Surveillance ..

In contrast to the immunosurveillance hypothesis…

The hypothesis of immune surveillance was formulated by two prominent immunologists, Lewis Thomas in 1959 (Thomas, 1959) and Mac Farlane Burnet in 1964 (Burnet, 1971). In Burnet's words: "In large long lived animals....inheritable genetic changes must be common in somatic cells and a proportion of these changes will represent steps toward malignancy. It is an evolutionary necessity that there should be some mechanism for elimination or inactivity of such potentially dangerous mutant cells and it is postulated that this mechanism is of immunological character".

Why did the immunosurveillance hypothesis fall out of favor?

This review provides an overview of the concept of immunosurveillance with highlighting its main cellular arms. We discuss the role of infections on cancer development and especially evidences of a positive effect of infections on the inhibition of some cancer development through enhancement of innate immune responses. This effect of infection might constitute a peculiar type of hygiene hypothesis, which could lead to distinct frequency of some cancers in populations with different exposure to infectious agents.

that summarize work done on the immunosurveillance hypothesis.

The original concept that immune systems could recognize and control cancer was first postulated by Ehrlich and later embodied in cancer immuno-surveillance hypothesis of Burnet and Thomas in the 1950's and 60's. Their hypothesis was largely abandoned a decade or so later because of the absence of solid evidence to support this idea. Fortunately, cancer immuno-surveillance has continued to be vigorously debated and experimentally tested, and now as we enter the 21st century, mounting evidence in humans and mice supports the involvement of immunity in tumor initiation, growth and metastasis. The concept that the immune system detects stressed, transformed and frankly malignant cells underpins much of the excitement currently surrounding new immuno-therapeutic options in cancer treatment. Paradoxically, while strong evidence exists that immuno-surveillance systems operate at early stages of tumorigenesis, established tumors primarily induce immune tolerance. To avoid immunity, tumors must develop mechanisms that inhibit the generation and detection of pro-inflammatory danger signals. In this review, we will define the cancer immuno-surveillance hypothesis, summarize the historical circumstances that led to its conception and debate, and discuss more recent convincing experimental evidence that supports this and other emerging concepts about the cancer : immunity interface.

Explore the cancer immunoediting signaling ..

28/11/2017 · A renaissance for th..