Dingbao Wang, Jianshi Zhao, Yin Tang,

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KW - maximum entropy production

2The Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA ;

KW - Proportionality Hypothesis

The International Consortium for Blood Pressure (ICBP) performed a multi-stage GWAS meta-analysis of blood pressure and hypertension in > 20,000 individuals of European ancestry. Phenotypes included in the analysis were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP, the difference between SBP and DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP, a weighted average of SBP and DBP) and hypertension.

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In 1994, Reed Wickner of the National Institutes of Health made a key observation: the bizarre yeast trait appeared at a higher frequency when URE2 was overexpressed. He further determined that the Ure2 proteins specifically, rather than the DNA and RNA molecules encoding them, were responsible for this effect. Wickner then offered the only explanation compatible with the seemingly incongruous results: the information responsible for the trait’s inheritance was encoded by an alteration in the Ure2 protein itself. In other words, Ure2 forms a prion, which reproduces itself through the conversion of other Ure2 molecules in the cytoplasm. During cell division, the prion particles divide among daughter cells, thereby perpetuating the trait in a non-Mendelian manner. (See .)

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In another study, Kato et al. conducted a meta-analysis of GWAS of SBP and DBP in >19,000 subjects of east Asian ancestry from the AGEN-BP consortium, followed by independent replications in east Asian samples.

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In 2012, the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium performed an association analysis in 63,746 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 130,681 controls of European or Asian descent, and identified 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance. The total number of susceptibility loci for CAD returned by this analysis was 46, and a further 104 independent variants were found to be strongly associated with CAD at a 5 % false discovery rate (FDR).

Fig. 2 - Conditional Convergence

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Note:CAD, coronary artery disease; DBP, Diastolic blood pressure; SBP, Systolic blood pressure; MAP, Mean Arterial Pressure (a weighted average of SBP and DBP); PP, Pulse pressure (the difference between SBP and DBP, a measure of stiffness of the main arteries); OR, odds ratio
PGC2 is the abbreviation of Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Of course, even the conditional convergence hypothesis should not necessarily hold when comparing the industrialized world with the underdeveloped world because the population growth rates between countries in these two groups are different (Denmark vs. Mozambique again). But the conditional convergence hypothesis ought to help explain why countries with similar population growth rates (e.g. India and Nigeria) can converge to the same growth rates, albeit with different steady-state capital-labor ratios, and thus different income/consumption per capita.

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Impressionable years hypothesis - Wikipedia

Since Wickner’s original discovery, scientists have exploited the superior tractability and genetic resources of yeast to look for additional prion-forming proteins. To date, researchers have determined that approximately two dozen proteins can form prions in this organism. And at least some of them appear to do so quite frequently. At least one-third of wild yeast isolates harbor traits that can be attributed to prions. These traits include changes in cell-cell adhesion, resistance to antibiotics, and alterations in the way yeast cells use nutrients. Why might yeast harbor so many of these elements? More importantly, do other organisms also commonly harbor nonpathogenic prions?