Hypotheses and Research Questions

N2 - Keeping up with the ever-expanding flow of data and publications is untenable and poses a fundamental bottleneck to scientific progress. Current search technologies typically find many relevant documents, but they do not extract and organize the information content of these documents or suggest new scientific hypotheses based on this organized content. We present an initial case study on KnIT, a prototype system that mines the information contained in the scientific literature, represents it explicitly in a queriable network, and then further reasons upon these data to generate novel and experimentally testable hypotheses. KnIT combines entity detection with neighbor-text feature analysis and with graph-based diffusion of information to identify potential new properties of entities that are strongly implied by existing relationships. We discuss a successful application of our approach that mines the published literature to identify new protein kinases that phosphorylate the protein tumor suppressor p53. Retrospective analysis demonstrates the accuracy of this approach and ongoing laboratory experiments suggest that kinases identified by our system may indeed phosphorylate p53. These results establish proof of principle for automated hypothesis generation and discovery based on text mining of the scientific literature.

What Is a Scientific Hypothesis? | Definition of Hypothesis

Let's take a closer look at how a hypothesis is used, formed, and tested in scientific research.

the scientific method hypothesis-based science

A simple hypothesis is a prediction of the relationship between two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable.

An Example of How to Write a Hypothesis

When most people think of scientific experimentation, research on cause and effect is most often brought to mind. investigate the effect of one or more variables on one or more outcome variables. This type of research also determines if one variable causes another variable to occur or change. An example of this type of research would be changing the amount of a specific treatment and measuring the effect on study participants.

"KnIT...further reasons upon these data to generate novel and experimentally testable hypotheses."
T1 - Automated hypothesis generation based on mining scientific literature

Hypothesis Definition, Checklist, and Examples

A hypothesis often follows a basic format of "If {this happens} then {this will happen}." One way to structure your hypothesis is to describe what will happen to the if you make changes to the .

hypothesis-drivenresearch) involves Observation, Hypothesis, Controlled Experiment and Conclusion.

Hypothesis Testing - Structure and the research, null …

A hypothesis is a statement created by the researcher as a potential explanationfor an observation or phenomena. The hypothesis converts the researcher's originalquestion into a statement that can be used to make predictions about what should beobserved if the hypothesis is true. For example, given the hypothesis, "exposure toultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of skin cancer," one would predicthigher rates of skin cancer among people with greater UV exposure. These predictions couldbe tested by comparing skin cancer rates among individuals with varying amounts of UVexposure. Note how the hypothesis itself determines what experiments or furtherobservations should be made to test its validity. Results of tests are then compared topredictions from the hypothesis, and conclusions are stated in terms of whether or not thedata supports the hypothesis. So the hypothesis serves a guide to the full process ofscientific inquiry.

A statistical hypothesis is an examination of a portion of a population.

Hypothesis testing and scientific ..

It is an unwelcome fact for all of these ideas about theory testingthat data are typically produced in ways that make it impossible topredict them from the generalizations they are used to test, or toderive instances of those generalizations from data and non ad hocauxiliary hypotheses. Indeed, it’s unusual for many members of a setof reasonably precise quantitative data to agree with one another, letalone with a quantitative prediction. That is because precise,publicly accessible data typically cannot be produced except throughprocesses whose results reflect the influence of causal factors thatare too numerous, too different in kind, and too irregular in behaviorfor any single theory to account for them. When Bernard Katz recordedelectrical activity in nerve fiber preparations, the numerical valuesof his data were influenced by factors peculiar to the operation ofhis galvanometers and other pieces of equipment, variations among thepositions of the stimulating and recording electrodes that had to beinserted into the nerve, the physiological effects of their insertion,and changes in the condition of the nerve as it deteriorated duringthe course of the experiment. There were variations in theinvestigators’ handling of the equipment. Vibrations shook theequipment in response to a variety of irregularly occurring causesranging from random error sources to the heavy tread of Katz’steacher, A.V. Hill, walking up and down the stairs outside of thelaboratory. That’s a short list. To make matters worse, many of thesefactors influenced the data as parts of irregularly occurring,transient, and shifting assemblies of causal influences.