In the second stage of Photosynthesis, hydrogen ions are pumped where
and hydrogen ions (H ) in the thylakoid space.
Photosystems (PS) I and II are large protein complexes that contain light-absorbing pigment molecules needed for photosynthesis. PS II captures energy from sunlight to extract electrons from water molecules, splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen ions (H+) and producing chemical energy in the form of ATP. PS I uses those electrons and H+ to reduce NADP+ (an electron-carrier molecule) to NADPH. The chemical energy contained in ATP and NADPH is then used in the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to sugars.
is used to split water into oxygen gas and hydrogen ions.
During theCalvin cycle, energy from the molecule and electrons and hydrogen ions from the molecule are used to convert a 3-carbon sugar precursor to a 3-carbonsugar.
The electrons are transported over ferredoxins
To this end, there is a need for the development of industrial technology which makes use of biological principles in a sophisticated manner.
Biological energy conversions can be categorized into two groups: i) photosynthesis (the process whereby solar energy is fixed to yield energy useful to organisms and industry), and ii) biomass conversion (the product of photosynthesis) into energy.
Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis - BioTopics
 "[NiFe]-hydrogenases: spectroscopic and electrochemical definition of reactions and intermediates", Armstrong, F. A.; Albracht, S. P. J. Philos. Transact. A, 2005, 363, 937-954.
They pass some of this energy on to a chain of electron carriers
Recent advances in biotechnology have made possible studies on the utilization of biological processes such as photosynthesis for energy production.The use of natural energy involves the control of entropy.