Hydrogen ions formed during the ..

Through diffusion, the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to low concentration, the hydrogen ions move back to the stroma through a protein channel called ATP synthase.

In the second stage of Photosynthesis, hydrogen ions are pumped where

ATp is made when hydrogen ions flow through a channel protein in the thylakoid membrane.

and hydrogen ions (H ) in the thylakoid space.

Photosystems (PS) I and II are large protein complexes that contain light-absorbing pigment molecules needed for photosynthesis. PS II captures energy from sunlight to extract electrons from water molecules, splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen ions (H+) and producing chemical energy in the form of ATP. PS I uses those electrons and H+ to reduce NADP+ (an electron-carrier molecule) to NADPH. The chemical energy contained in ATP and NADPH is then used in the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide to sugars.

is used to split water into oxygen gas and hydrogen ions.

During theCalvin cycle, energy from the molecule and electrons and hydrogen ions from the molecule are used to convert a 3-carbon sugar precursor to a 3-carbonsugar.

In doing so, the water molecules split apart into oxygen molecules and hydrogen ions.

The electrons are transported over ferredoxins

To this end, there is a need for the development of industrial technology which makes use of biological principles in a sophisticated manner.


Biological energy conversions can be categorized into two groups: i) photosynthesis (the process whereby solar energy is fixed to yield energy useful to organisms and industry), and ii) biomass conversion (the product of photosynthesis) into energy.

Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis - BioTopics

[15] "[NiFe]-hydrogenases: spectroscopic and electrochemical definition of reactions and intermediates", Armstrong, F. A.; Albracht, S. P. J. Philos. Transact. A, 2005, 363, 937-954.

They pass some of this energy on to a chain of electron carriers

Recent advances in biotechnology have made possible studies on the utilization of biological processes such as photosynthesis for energy production.The use of natural energy involves the control of entropy.

A carrier protein help the hydrogen ions to diffuse back into the inner compartment.

These hydrogen ions are used to generate energy in the form of ATP

Finally, ATP is produced after the hydrogen ions diffuse into the inner compartment through a channel protein

Recycling of NAD+ Molcecules: There's a limited amount of NAD+ free floating ions in the cytoplasm.

Hydrogen ions and electrons combine with oxygen molecules to form water molecules.

Researchers create hydrogen fuel with ..

determined that outdoor solar incubation for a period exceeding one month in California, resulted in an average energy conversion efficiency (energy yielded by combustion of produced hydrogen/incidence solar energy) of 0.2% (6).

Bacterial mechanisms for photosynthetic hydrogen production are summarized in Figure 2-4.

FermentationNADH donates hydrogen ions to organic molecules instead of the ETC.

Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria, while biomass conversion reactions often occur in non-photosynthetic microorganisms.