Organic Synthesis - Organic Chemistry Portal
How to balance synthesis reactions - Quora
Amides are formed by the condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine (primary or secondary amines, or ammonia). Water is formed as a byproduct from the carboxylic acid –OH and the amine –H (Scheme 5). It could be very easy to understand amide formation if you recall the ester formation reaction (Scheme 3). However, unlike ester formation, the amide reaction equilibrium is highly unfavorable for the synthesis of products because a competing acid-base reaction occurs between a carboxylic acid and amine. Many methods are thus used to drive the reaction to the right. For example, either acid chloride or acid anhydride is used as a more reactive carboxylic acid derivative to prepare amides. In a similar way, the amide bond is formed between the carbonyl carbon and the amine nitrogen while the –Cl joins –H to form HCl (when using acid chloride) or the RCOO– joins –H to form a carboxylic acid (when using acid anhydride) (Scheme 5). In addition to learning these concepts in lecture, students engage in laboratory experiments such as the synthesis of nylon from adipoyl chloride and hexamethylemediamine that serve as good strategies to reinforce the concept of amide formation and solidify student understanding of this reaction.
Reactions and synthesis | Chemistry World
As with all combustion reactions, the mechanism of this reaction is extremely complex (you don't want to see the rate law!) and varies somewhat with the conditions. Some of the major radical formation steps are
Named Reactions List - The Organic Synthesis Database
It is not clear from this however, how the chemistry might be done! Therefore just being given the starting materials is not sufficient to help plan a synthesis.
Note the importance of CCBFR.
Sonochemical Reaction and Synthesis - Hielscher
Many students (including the author) take a one-semester fundamental chemistry lecture and laboratory course (CHEM 102) that surveys the basics of organic chemistry and biochemistry (Van Lanen, 2000). It is organized around topics of organic chemistry, but with some biological perspective (Miner, 1948; Isom, 2006). This course is often required for students in health-oriented programs, especially the nursing program (at the University of South Carolina, Chemistry 102 is required in the nursing curriculum, as shown ), and it may also serve as a laboratory science for students in other fields of study (Price, 1976; Mamantov and Wyatt, 1978). Emphasis for this course is often placed on selected principles relevant to the understanding of human biological functions and related medical aspects. However, this course is often seen by students as a difficult and professionally irrelevant barrier in pursuing a career in medicine or nursing. Moreover, even though knowing detailed chemical properties of organic molecules is not a main objective for this course, students are required to comprehend some basic organic reactions, especially those closely related to biochemical processes of the human body. Some typical examples are the oxidation of an alcohol, the formation of a disulfide bond, carboxylic acid and amine dissociation, esterification, and amide formation. However, learning organic reactions for non-science major students has often been unpleasant (Rowe, 1983; Burgess and Bino, 1988).