What is the coupled reactions and how are they related to ATP?

After 10 hours, you have completed a long conversation with your friend and your cell phone probably has a dead battery. The cycling of molecules between the chloroplasts and mitochondria is responsible for the flow of energy through the .Chloroplasts use solar energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates (sugars).Cellular respiration in the mitochondria breaks down carbohydrates to yield energy (ATP), releasing carbon dioxide and water. Humans also contribute to the flow of energy from the sun and through the biosphere.Humans release carbon dioxide (from our lungs) and water (from our urine) that plants can use for photosynthesis.The carbohydrates and other nutrients that we eat or drink are broken down in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of our cells to produce the ATP needed for cellular activities.

The reactants, or , are the chemicals that enter the . Enzymes are protein molecules that function as organic to speed up a chemical reaction.Enzymes are the cell's chemical tools Substrates often must be activated before a chemical reaction can occur.The energy needed to cause a substrate to react with another molecule is called the . Enzymes help catalyze reactions by lowering the energy of activation for a reaction.Imagine the amount of energy that it would take for you to loosen a nut with the correct wrench verses with only a pair of pliers.

using the picture how ATP synthesis is coupled to ..

Is the pathway b-c is coupled with ADP-atp catagorize the reactions as endergonic or exergonic?

When two reactions are coupled, ..

ATP is formed in the aqueous space bounded by the mitochondrial inner membrane. This space is known as the matrix (see Fig. 7). Most of the ATP generated within mitochondria is exported to the cytoplasm where it is used to drive energy-dependent reactions. The ADP and Pi formed in the cytoplasm must then be taken up by the mitochondria. The inner membrane contains specific proteins that mediate the export of ATP and the import of ADP and Pi. One transporter catalyzes counterexchange transport of ATP out of the matrix with ADP in the cytoplasm into the matrix (Fig. 8). At physiological pH, ATP bears four negative charges, and ADP, three. Thus, the one-to-one exchange transport of ATP with ADP creates a membrane potential that is opposite in sign of that created by electron-transport-driven proton translocation. ATP/ADP transport costs energy and the direction of transport is poised by the proton membrane potential. In addition, phosphate uptake into mitochondria is coupled to the electrochemical proton potential. The phosphate translocator (see Fig. 8) catalyzes the counterexchange transport of H2PO4— and hydroxide anion (OH-). The outward movement of OH-causes acidification of the matrix, whereas the direction of proton transport driven by electron transport is out of the mitochondrial matrix and results in an increase in the pH of the matrix.

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Electron transport from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen provides the energy for the generation of the electrochemical potential of the proton. The flow of protons down this potential is exergonic and is the immediate source of energy for ATP synthesis. The proton-linked synthesis of ATP is catalyzed by a complex enzyme called ATP syn-thase. Remarkably similar enzymes are located in the coupling membranes of bacteria, mitochondria, and chloro-plasts, the intracellular sites of photosynthesis in higher plants. Even though the reaction that they catalyze seems relatively straightforward (see Fig. 2), the ATP synthases contain a minimum of 8 different proteins and a total of about 20 polypeptide chains.

ATP and Coupled Reactions Many reactions in cells are endothermic (require energy), such as protein synthesis
o Coupling spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions o Kinetics of ATP hydrolysis o Thermodynamics of ATP synthesis

7.7: Coupled Reactions - Chemistry LibreTexts

Biological oxidation reactions serve two functions, as described in the previous chapter. Oxidation of organic molecules can produce new molecules with different properties. For example, increases in solubility is observed on hydroxylation of aromatic substrates by cytochrome P450. Likewise, amino acids can by oxidized to produce neurotransmitters. Most biological oxidation reactions occur, however, to produce energy to drive thermodynamically unfavored biological processes such as protein and nucleic acid synthesis, or motility. Chemical potential energy is not just released in biological oxidation reactions. Rather, it is transduced into a more useful form of chemical energy in the molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). This chapter will discuss the properties that make ATP so useful biologically, and how exergonic biological oxidation reactions are coupled to the synthesis of ATP.

reaction that is coupled with ATP synthesis , an endergonic reaction. Oxidation of organic from CHM 229 at Oakton

Many biochemical reactions result in energy being ..

In this tutorial, we have seen that nonspontaneous reactionsin the body occur by coupling them with a very spontaneousreaction (usually the ATP reaction shown in Equation 3). We havejust seen that ATP is produced by coupling the phosphorylationreaction with NADH oxidation (a very spontaneous reaction). Butwe have not yet answered the question: by what mechanism arethese reactions coupled?

Question Some coupled reactions in cells, including many involved in protein synthesis, use the nucleotide GTP as an energy source instead of ATP. What would be […]

Bioenergetic systems - Wikipedia

Two classic inhibitors (structures shown below) of ATP synthase interact with the Fo subunit. One, oligomycin A, binds between the a and c subunits and blocks proton transport activity of the Fo subunit. Oligomycin A sensitivity requires, paradoxically, OSCP (Oligomycin-Sensitivity Conferring Protein which is analogous to the bacterial delta subunit), a stalk protein subunit distal to Fo which couples Fo and F1. Another inhibitor, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide reacts with a protonated Asp 61 in c subunits of F0. It does so even at pH 8.0 which indicates that the pKa of the Asp 61 is much higher than usual. This might occur if the Asp is a very hydrophobic environment. The modification of one As 61 in only one c subunit is necessary to stop Fo activity. The protonated carboxyl group donates a proton to a N atom in DCCD, which then reacts with the deprotonated Asp to form an O-acyl isourea derivative.