Jonathan Haidt; Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, ..

"Humanistic psychologists assert that people are basically good but the process of self–actualization as improvement was not understood; humanistic psychologists were overarchingly optimistic about people's ability to change for the better. Cognitive psychologists reacted against behaviorism by applying the scientific method to the study of problem solving and rational choices. Positive psychology embraces the optimism of the humanists, the potential mechanisms of improvement of the cognitive psychologists, and the rigorous research methods of science" (Hoy & Tarter, 2011, p. 431).

The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology

The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology Jonathan Haidt, et al

Jonathan Haidt's homepage on moral political psychology ..

Entwistle, D. N. & Moroney, S. K. (2011). Integrative perspectives on human flourishing: The Imago Dei and positive psychology. , 295-303. The field of psychology in general, and clinical psychology in particular, has historically focused on the things that go wrong in human behavior and functioning. Similarly, evangelical theology has traditionally highlighted the problem of sin and its wide-ranging consequences for human beings. Not surprisingly, this state of affairs has led to integrative efforts that concentrate on the darker side of human nature and tend to neglect what is admirable and noble in human nature. A case is made in this article that a more complete view is needed that celebrates humans' positive features as creatures who bear the image of God, while simultaneously recognizing the pervasiveness of sin and its effects. After reviewing the one-sidedness of past integrative efforts, we suggest several possibilities for relating the image of God to findings within positive psychology, before concluding with some cautions for this new endeavor.

The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology - Science | AAAS

Diener, E., Suh, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Subjective well–being: three decades of progress. , (2), 276–302. doi:10.1037/0033–2909.125.2.276 W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well–being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect).

The new synthesis in moral psychology
The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology - Science

Jonathan Haidt; Department of Psychology, ..

In 1975, E. O. Wilson () predicted that ethics would soon be incorporated into the “new synthesis” of sociobiology. Two psychological theories of his day were ethical behaviorism (values are learned by reinforcement) and the cognitive-developmental theory of Lawrence Kohlberg (social experiences help children construct an increasingly adequate understanding of justice). Wilson believed that these two theories would soon merge with research on the hypothalamic-limbic system, which he thought supported the moral emotions, to provide a comprehensive account of the origins and mechanisms of morality.

Jonathan Haidt and the New Atheists: Moral Psychology …

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Schneider, K. (2011). Toward a humanistic positive psychology why can't we just get along? , (1), 32–38. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. I propose that despite the nay–saying 1) positive psychology is justifiably a branch of humanistic psychology, and 2) a humanistic positive psychology would be salutary to the profession of psychology. From the standpoint of theory, I show how positive psychology shares humanistic psychology's concern with what it means to be fully, experientially human, and how that understanding illuminates the vital or fulfilled life. However, I also show how the findings of positive psychology, particularly in the area "happiness" research – or what has recently been termed "human flourishing," stop short of the fuller aforementioned aims. Specifically, I show how positive psychology appears to oversimplify both the experience of human flourishing and its social–adaptive value. While the positive psychology findings on flourishing are useful in limited contexts, e.g., in terms of their implications for the attainment of pleasure, physical health, and cultural competency, they are inadequate with respect to the more complicated contexts of creativity, emotional depth, and social consciousness. I will detail the nature of these discrepancies, such as their implications for perception of reality, psychological growth, and capacity for self–reflection, and consider their role in an expanded vision of human resiliency.

Jonathan Haidt and the New Atheists: Moral Psychology and the Misunderstanding of Religion ..

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The following works provide a range of perspectives on the field of moral development. Of particular use to anyone new to the area, the years 2006–2014 saw the publication and revision of several major handbooks that provide updated and much-needed surveys of current research in this dynamic and rapidly changing field. A handbook directly concerned with moral education is , described in . The more general overview, , is composed of review articles by numerous top figures in the field. Essays cover topics such as moral development in early childhood, aggression and morality, moral identity, and insights from neuroscience, as well as evolutionary and cultural psychology. An older compendium, , continues to serve as a valuable historical resource because of its treasury of influential work culled from less accessible sources. Works with particular appeal to readers with an interest in moral philosophy include and . Both examine tensions between moral philosophical perspectives and psychological theory and research. For a more contemporary view of topics that have captured the imagination of thinkers across disciplines, is an edited volume on the moral self and personality, highlighting the diversity of theoretical and research perspectives in a time between major paradigms.