differentiate into the guard cells that surround a stoma

In general, conditions that promote transpiration—such as sunny, warm, dry, windy weather—cause guard cells to reduce the size of stomata.
First, it creates a “transpiration pull” that helps move water,minerals, and other substances from roots, where they are absorbed, to leaves where they are used.
Second, it produces an evaporative cooling effect that prevents leaves from heating to temperatures that could inhibit or even denature the enzymes that catalyze the reactions of photosynthesis.
a) When K1(aq) ions diffuse into guard cells, water moves in by osmosis, guard cells swell, and the stoma opens.
(b) When K1 (aq) ions diffuse out of guard cells, water moves out by osmosis, guard cells become flaccid, and the stoma closes
Therefore, it appears that the movement of K1(aq) ions into guard cells, and a decrease in CO2
In general, stomata are open in the daytime and closed at night.
In the morning, when the Sun comes out, light energy (blue light) activates specific receptors in guard cell membranes (blue-light receptors), stimulating proton pumps that drive protonsout of the cells.
The resulting electrochemical gradient causes K1
ions to move into the cells, and water to follow by osmosis.

of cell assists photosynthesis.

This process is carried out by chloroplasts within the mesophyll cells  of the leaf.
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What is turgor pressure in plant cells ..

Magnesium plays an important role in plant cells since it appears in the center of the chlorophyll molecule. Certain enzymatic reactions require Mg as a co-factor.

Functions of Parenchyma Cells in Plants? | easybiologyclass

Potassium plays a major role as an activator in many enzymatic reactions in the plant. Many enzymes responsible for cellular reactions require K as a co-factor. Another role for K in plants occurs in special leaf cells called guard cells found around the stomata. By regulating the turgor pressure in the guard cells, the degree of opening of the stomata is controlled and thus the level of gas and water vapor exchange through the stomata is regulated. Turgor is largely controlled by K movement in and out of guard cells.

In the detail of the pine needle to the left the guard cells are carried beneath the subsidiary cells.
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Mesophyll cells are specialized for photosynthesis

Filon which look like ridged fibreglass, or PVC plastic sheets can be utilize outside to wrap young plants grown jointly in a garden. You can purchase a clear a colourless greenhouse sheets, and unclear them with white wash (this is contain lime) or epoxy resin coloured white or gray and tinted on a thin coating. This will permit more sun instead of using while PVC or Filon, and remains to cover the plants. Epoxy resin coats will protect the Filon for a lott of seasons than to last. It will also permit you to camouflage the shed of metal by just painting the clear Filon roll with a thin coating of resin coloured light gray. Paint will do as well, but may not guard as much. Be cautious to use more as needed, to lessen sun obstruction to a minimum.

Why do stomata close when excess water? How the mechanism?

Chlorine is supplied for plant nutrition as the chloride ion and is required in very small amounts for normal plant growth. Chloride is involved in photosynthesis and functions as a counter-ion in maintaining turgor pressure in cells. Chlorine deficiency symptoms are not common but include wilting. The chloride ion is very common in the environment and is often found as a constituent in fertilizers; therefore, deficiency symptoms are rare. High concentrations of chloride in the nutrient solution can be toxic to plants in hydroponic culture.

more of the gas and make photosynthesis ..

Instead, infoldings of the cell membrane are used as sites of photosynthesis and respiration.
algae, some protists, and plant cells contain chlorophyll withinthe photosynthetic membranes of discrete organelles called chloroplasts
Leaves, are the primary photosynthetic organs of most plants.

Start studying Plants (Chapter 12)

Each plant is comprises up of cells. Each cell contains hundreds of chemical reaction undergoing within at every second of the day. These respond would be very sluggish if it was not for the help of enzymes. Enzymes speed up all the chemical reactions undergoing inside the cell (that includes photosynthesis).