Agricultural greenhouse gas emissions

The loopers differ from most other caterpillars that are found in the greenhouse based on the number of pairs of prolegs they have. Prolegs are fleshy, leglike structures found on true caterpillars that are located under the posterior half of the body. There is also a single pair of prolegs at the very rear end. Prolegs differ from the small true legs (all three pairs) that are jointed and located just behind the head of a caterpillar. The cabbage looper has two main pairs of prolegs, plus one pair of rear end, or anal, prolegs. The other caterpillar types found in the greenhouse have four pairs of abdominal prolegs, plus one pair of anal prolegs.

Plates 3e. Flue gas distribution in greenhouse.

 Agricultural greenhouse gas sinks

The Greenhouse Effect & Photosynthesis | Sciencing

It is important to have an adequate distribution system. The distribution of CO2 depends mainly on air movement within the greenhouse(s), as CO2 does not travel very far through diffusion. For instance, when a single source of CO2 is used for a large surface area or several connecting greenhouses, a distribution system must be installed. This system must be designed to evenly distribute the CO2 in the greenhouse especially when flue gas CO2 or liquid CO2 is used. Air circulation using horizontal airflow fans or fan-jet system provides uniform distribution by moving large volumes of air within the greenhouse when top vents are closed or exhaust fans are not operational. Today, growers supplementing with liquid CO2 or flue gas CO2 have a central header with small individual tubes (with evenly spaced holes) placed low in the crop canopy or in the case of bench crops, under the bench. The potential for low CO2 levels inside a dense crop canopy (chrysanthemums) makes it beneficial to supplement within the canopy. Air movement around the plants will also improve the CO2 uptake because the boundary layer around the individual leaf is lessened bringing the CO2 molecules closer to the leaf.

The greenhouse effect occurs naturally

Do not allow excessive CO2 levels in greenhouses. Levels of 5,000 ppm can cause dizziness or lack of co-ordination to humans. Higher than recommended levels can cause necrosis of old tomato and cucumber leaves. African violet leaves become very hard and brittle, show a very dark greenish-grey colour and often malformed flower petals, which do not fully expand. A similar symptom with freesia flowers has been observed where the CO2 burner was used to provide the majority of the heat requirements of the greenhouse, and thereby generating excessive amounts of CO2. Except in emergencies, do not use CO2 burners as the prime heating system.

Carbon dioxide levels are reduced in a greenhouse by natural air exchange and photosynthesis.

Green | Greenhouse | Photosynthesis

High-volume sprayers are popular and have been used for years in greenhouses. They can accommodate a wide range of pesticide types and offer flexibility in their operation. However, high-volume sprayers require a great deal of labor, are time consuming to use, and are considered to be low in application efficiency. It has been estimated that less than 10% of the active ingredient reaches the actual target when using high-volume systems. However, most insecticides and miticides are labeled for high-volume application. As previously discussed, most greenhouse insects and mites are found on the underside of the leaves, making it difficult for the spray to reach the pest.

Photosynthesis, Trees, and the Greenhouse Effect - SAS

(In other words, ourcurrent oxygen-rich atmosphere was generated as a by-product ofphotosynthesis, and without it life as we know it would not bepossible.)

When a plant is eaten the carbon it containspasses to the consumer e.g a cow grazes on grass, and as we enjoy oursteak so the carbon is transferred to us.

The Greenhouse Effect - Georgia State University

Growers should purchase the proper type of equipment to meet the needs of the operation and use equipment designed for the target pest. Each pest differs in habits and behavior, and a single piece of equipment may not meet all needs. For instance, tests involving equipment geared to control greenhouse mites varied widely in results. High-volume sprayers provided 59% control, rotary atomizers provided 67% control, and pulse-jet applicators provided 8% control.

How do greenhouses maximize photosynthesis? - Quora

Greenhouse growers frequently have smaller areas to spray than field growers and therefore need smaller amounts of pesticide to do the job. For example, a field tomato farmer may use 1 qt (32 oz) of a material per 100 gal of water per acre. However, in a greenhouse, only 1 gal of spray might be needed to cover the greenhouse block. This means one must measure out 0.32 oz or 9.3 mL (or cubic centimeters), which is less than 1 tablespoon. It is critical that this measurement be accurate; growers should buy a set of graduated cylinders that are marked in ounces (oz) and milliliters (cc or mL), as well as a set of good-quality measuring cups. Plastic syringes (minus the needles) are very useful for measuring thick liquids, such as suspension concentrate (SC) formulations. These are available in several sizes from suppliers of animal feed. A scale is essential for weighing dry flowables, wettable granules, and other dry formulations. Measuring devices, such as graduated cylinders, should have pouring lips and graduated markings that enable accurate measurements. Plastic is generally safer than glass. Accurate measurement is essential for efficacy against the target pest, a safe range of pesticide residues on the crop, efficient use of chemicals and money, and the reduction or elimination of phytotoxicity (burning).