1. Describe the glycogen molecule.

The contribution of the direct pathway to glycogen was calculated from the three tracers, and the values by all three were nearly identical, about 50%.

Keywords: Glycogen synthase kinase-3, GSK-3 inhibitors

It is a particular risk if one starts a ride withouta full tank, so to speak, of muscle glycogen.

From dietary glucose to liver glycogen: the full circle round.

Schematic diagram of the inolvementof hte insulin signaling pathway in the regulation of glucosetransport and glycogen synthesis. Insulin binds to itstransmembrane receptor, insulin receptor (IR), and promotes itsautophosphorylation at tyrosine residues (p-IR). Activated p-IRrecruits IR substrate (IRS) and enhances its activation bymediating its phosphorylation (p-IRS). p-IRS subsequently binds top85, the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K),and elevates the activation of its catalytic subunit p110, whichsubsequently activates phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK). Asthe upstream kinase of Akt, PDK promotes the phosphorylation of Akt(p-Akt) at Thr308 and Ser473. Activated Akt regulates glucosemetabolism in two pathways. One is promoting glucose transporterGLUT translocation from the cytoplasm to the membrane, whichmediates glucose uptake; another one is repressing the function ofglycogen synthesis kinase 3 (GSK3) by enhancing its phosphorylationat Ser9, and then enhancing the activation of GS and promotingglycogen synthesis.

On the measurement of pathways of glycogen synthesis.

It has been suggested that the initial elevated replacement rate is insulin INdependent, while the slowing at 4 hours is a shift back towards the normal insulin dependent muscle cell uptake rate.After this initial 4 hours surge, muscle glycogen stores are replenished at a rate of approximately 5% per hour.

T1 - Determination of the glycogen synthesis pathway by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis
The 14C specific activity in carbon 6 of glycogen glucose was about 6% that of carbon 1.

Glycogen branching enzyme

As the intensity of a ride does make a difference in the subsequent rate (per hour) of glycogen replacement, for those who are recreational riders, or doing LSD (long, slow distance) rides, eating french fries for recovery nutrition may be just as helpful as a coke or chocolate milk.

The [3H]glucose/[1-14C]glucose ratio in glycogen was 80-90% that in blood glucose.

But the muscles contain glycogen.

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 50

T1 - Impaired glycogen breakdown and synthesis in phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency

Glycogen branching enzyme

55. Hoeflich KP, Luo J, Rubie EA, Tsao MS, Jin O, Woodgett JR. Requirement for glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in cell survival and NF-kappaB activation. 2000;406:86-90