Outline the steps during glucose synthesis from glycerol …

Chapter 31, Objective 13: Compare the energy used in the conversion of two moles of pyruvate to glucose with the energy generated during glycolysis when one mole of glucose is converted to two moles of pyruvate.

Glucose Regulation - Austin Community College

Include the terms fatty acids, glycerol, gluconeogenesis, energy, and ketone bodies.

Glucose Regulation ; Anatomy of the pancreas

The second phase of glycolysis, the energy-yielding phase, creates the energy that is the product of glycolysis. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase converts each three-carbon glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate produced during the energy-consuming phase into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate. This reaction releases an electron that is then picked up by NAD+ to create an NADH molecule. NADH is a high-energy molecule, like ATP, but unlike ATP, it is not used as energy currency by the cell. Because there are two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate molecules, two NADH molecules are synthesized during this step. Each 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is subsequently dephosphorylated (i.e., a phosphate is removed) by phosphoglycerate kinase into 3-phosphoglycerate. Each phosphate released in this reaction can convert one molecule of ADP into one high-energy ATP molecule, resulting in a gain of two ATP molecules.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

protein obtained by boiling animal skin, connective tissue or bones, usually from cows or pigs. It's an edible form of . It is used as a gelling agent, stabilizer or thickener in cooking. It is also used in glues, photographic films, matches, sandpaper, certain soft drinks, playing cards, crepe paper and more
also known as gluconolactone or GDL. A fine, white, acidic powder. It is usually produced by the oxidation of a by microorganisms

a simple sugar usually produced by hydrolysis of a starch with mineral acids. Starches used include corn, rice, wheat, potato and arrowroot. It can also be produced synthetically or by adding crystallized to a mixture of alcohol and acid. In some countries (like the U.S.) glucose is run through filters
enzyme derived from the bacteria Streptomyces rubiginosus. It is used in the production of fructose syrups (including high fructose corn syrup) by changing glucose into fructose
a dietary supplement used to aid in the relief of joint problems. Usually extracted from the tissues of shellfish. It can also be derived from corn or produced synthetically
a clear, colorless liquid which is a by-product of the soap-making process obtained by adding alkalies (solutions with a pH greater than 7) to fats and fixed oils. It may be derived from animal fats, synthesized from propylene or from fermentation of sugars. Vegetable glycerin is derived from vegetable fats.
an amino acid, obtainable by hydrolysis of proteins
obtained from scales of fish Gum made from ground guar seeds.
a natural gum produced by the acacia tree to heal its bark if damaged. It is used in cosmetics, candy, syrups and as glue.

Outline the steps during glucose synthesis from glycerol-3- phosphate in animals.
Chapter 31, Objective 10: Explain the control of the conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate during gluconeogenesis.

Glyceroneogenesis and Glycerol ..

23. As blood glucose decreases and the insulin to glucagon ratio drops, the cyclic AMP cascade causes an increase in lipolysis in adipose tissue. What are the products of lipolysis and how do liver and muscle use them? Include the terms fatty acids, glycerol, gluconeogenesis, energy, and ketone bodies.

a microscopic unicellular fungus. Different yeast products include baker's yeast, nutritional yeast and brewer's yeast.

Glycogenesis - Department of Chemistry - Elmhurst …

fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal
derived from the leaves of wintergreen, meadowsweet, willow bark or other plants. It can also be produced synthetically by heating with carbon dioxide
insect secretion
cloth made from the fiber produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the destruction of the insect the sodium salt of alginic acid extracted from brown seaweed.
white solid used as an acidity regulator in foods. It is mainly used in the manufacturing of baking powder. Produced by combining and .
the sodium salt of . Produced by reacting with . Used as a food preservative. bicarbonate of Soda
Soda Ash. A sodium salt of .
chemical term for table salt. It can be mined (rock salt), obtained by adding water to salt deposits (evaporated salt) or obtained from oceans and salt lakes (sea salt).
Caustic Soda. A water-soluble solid usually produced by processing salt water. It used to be obtained from the ashes of a certain kind of seaweed.
the sodium salt of
the sodium salt of sulfated ethoxylated
prepared by sulfation of followed by neutralization with
an inorganic salt. White to yellowish powder with sulfur dioxide odor. Used as a disinfectant, antioxidant and preservative.
synthetic material generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of using or .
prepared from and
the sodium salt of .
white powder obtained from fruit or produced synthetically
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially known as Span 20
manufactured by reacting with to yield a mixture of esters. Commercially known as Span 60
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 80. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 80V
derived from raw materials of vegetable origin. Commercially know as Span 40
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially known as Span 65. The vegetable derived version is know as Span 65V
derived from animal or vegetable sources. Commercially know as Span 85. The vegetable derived version is known as Span 85V
a sugar alcohol derived from fruit like cherries, plums, pears, apples or from corn, seaweed and algae
also known as "starter culture", "sourdough culture" or "sour culture". It is usually made with a mixture of flour and water inhabited by yeast and lactobacteria containing no animal ingredients. Sometimes yogurt is used in the starter. Bread made from a sourdough culture is called sourdough bread
oil found in the head of the various species of whales
fatty substance derived as a wax from the head of the sperm whale
aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterized by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibers
.
found in the liver of the shark (and rats)
a complex carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants such as corn, potatoes, wheat, beans and rice.
salt of stearic acid
fat from cows, pigs, sheep, dogs or cats. Can be obtained from vegetable sources
general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of and , chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet
prepared from sperm whale oil or vegetable sources
made from and
obtained by reacting with an edible fat or oil with or without the presence of a solvent
known under the brand name Splenda. It's produced from . Some but not all Splenda producers have confirmed that they don't use bone char as a filter. Sucralose is tested on animals.

kid-, pig- or calf-skin tanned
solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep
a sweet crystallizable material that consists wholly or essentially of . It is obtained commercially from sugarcane or sugar beet. Beet sugar is vegan, but some cane sugars are processed through .
a toxic colorless gas formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing material, like fossil fuels.


ingredient is produced by chemical synthesis, which means that parts or elements are combined to form a whole. Unlike products, synthetic products are made from ingredients that do not occur (independently) in nature.

All of the following enzymes and metabolites are important in the conversion of odd chain fatty acids into glucose EXCEPT

Glucose-6-phosphate is synthesized directly from ..

: Acetyl CoA, adenyl cyclase, alanine aminotransferase, amino acids, ATP, biotin, cAMP, catalytic subunits, cortisol, covalent modification, energy, epinephrine, exercise, fasting, fatty acids, feed forward activation, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase,, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, G-protein, glucagon, glucagon receptor, gluconeogenesis, glucose , glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-1-P, glucose-6-P, glycerol, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase, GTP, high protein diet, induction, insulin, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, ketone bodies, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, lipolysis, malate, malate dehydrogenase, mitochondria, muscle degradation, NADH, oxaloacetate, phosphoenolpyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, phosphofructokinase-1, phosphofructokinase-2/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, phosphorylase, phosphorylase kinase, protein, protein kinase A, pyruvate, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, regulatory subunits, starvation, stress