Enhances whitening property due to inhibition of melanin synthesis ..

Nitric Oxide
Sandream’s raspberry ketone glucoside is an effective scavenger of nitric oxide. With the capture of the nitric oxide within the skin cell, the ingredient effectively inhibits the formation of melanin and lipid peroxidation. In vitro and in vivo clinical testing was conducted with positive effects demonstrated for skin lightening.
Natural Solution’s ingredient is from the sprout of perilla frutescens. Within a specialized cultivation process with the phytochemical rosmarinic acid as its main active constituent, nitric oxide is inhibited. In vitro testing demonstrated the inhibition activity of nitric oxide, decreased tyrosinase expression and activity, and decreased melanin transfer.

to bind to tyrosinase during melanin synthesis

01/12/2017 · Inhibition of Melanin Synthesis by Cystamine in Human ..
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inhibition of melanin synthesis …

Melanin is a biopolymer synthesized by melanocytes in discrete organelles— melanosomes [, ]. Therefore, in this study, we have used the culture of normal human epidermal melanocytes as an in vitro experimental model system. The study was conducted to elucidate the possible involvement of melanin and melanocytes in the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones-induced toxic effects. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were chosen as the biomarkers for modulatory effect of norfloxacin and moxifloxacin on melanogenesis, whereas the SOD, CAT, and GPx activities as the markers for oxidative stress in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP.

on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis

Many investigators have demonstrated the affinity of natural and synthetic melanins for various drugs by in vitro studies [, , ]. By inhibiting or significantly restricting drug access to cell receptors, melanins protect organism against undesirable drugs’ side effects. However, long-term exposure and slow release of drugs or their metabolites from bonds may increase the level of noxious substances stored on melanin, which may cause degeneration in the melanin-containing cells (e.g., in the skin and eye) and surrounding tissues [, ].

Glutathione soap lets the skin whiten through inhibition of melanin synthesis.
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Approaches to Identify Inhibitors of Melanin Biosynthesis via ..

Proposed mechanisms of action include: (a) direct inactivation of the enzyme tyrosinase by binding with the copper‐containing active site of the enzyme; (b) mediating the switch mechanism from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production; (c) quenching of free radicals and peroxides that contribute to tyrosinase activation and melanin formation; and d) modulation of depigmenting abilities of melanocytotoxic agents.

inhibition state, unstable melanin synthesis is ..

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics provide broad-spectrum coverage for a number of infectious diseases, including respiratory as well as urinary tract infections. One of the important adverse effects of these drugs is phototoxicity which introduces a serious limitation to their use. To gain insight the molecular mechanisms underlying the fluoroquinolones-induced phototoxic side effects, the impact of two fluoroquinolone derivatives with different phototoxic potential, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, on melanogenesis and antioxidant enzymes activity in normal human melanocytes HEMa-LP was determined. Both drugs induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 for these drugs was found to be 0.5 mM. Norfloxacin and moxifloxacin suppressed melanin biosynthesis; antibiotics were shown to inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity and to reduce melanin content in melanocytes. When comparing the both analyzed fluoroquinolones, it was observed that norfloxacin possesses greater inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity in melanocytes than moxifloxacin. The extent of oxidative stress in cells was assessed by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx. It was observed that norfloxacin caused higher depletion of antioxidant status in melanocytes when compared with moxifloxacin. The obtained results give a new insight into the mechanisms of fluoroquinolones toxicity directed to pigmented tissues. Moreover, the presented differences in modulation of biochemical processes in melanocytes may be an explanation for various phototoxic activities of the analyzed fluoroquinolone derivatives in vivo.

Inhibition of constitutive melanin synthesis ..

The plant (GCL) is a redox sensitive homodimeric enzyme, conserved in the plant kingdom. In an oxidizing environment intermolecular disulfide bridges are formed and the enzyme switches to the dimeric active state. The mid-point potential of the critical cysteine paire is - 318 mV. In addition to the redox dependent control is the plant GCL enzyme feedback inhibited by . GCL is exclusively located in and is dual-targeted to plastids and cytosol, thus are GSH and exported from the plastids. Both glutathione biosynthesis enzymes are essential in plants, knock-outs of GCL and GS are embryo and seedling lethal.