In the synthesis of Insulin, which of the following is NOT TRUE?

In a broad chemical sense, the opposite of photosynthesis isrespiration. Most of life on this planet (all except in the deepsea vents) depends on the reciprocal photosynthesis-drivenproduction of carbon containing compounds by a series of reducing(adding electrons) chemical reactions carried out by plants andthen the opposite process of oxidative (removing electrons)chemical reactions by animals (and plants, which are capable ofboth photosynthesis and respiration) in which these carboncompounds are broken down to carbon dioxide and water.

Glucose synthesis requires which of the following

Which of the following statements about glycogenolysis and glucose metabolism is TRUE?

Glucose is made during which of the following …

Anabolism: Anabolic reactions are those that lead to the synthesis of biomolecules. In contrast to the catabolic reactions just discussed (glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport/oxidative phosphorylation) which lead to the oxidative degradation of carbohydrates and fatty acids and energy release, anabolic reactions lead to the synthesis of more complex biomolecules including biopolymers (glycogen, proteins, nucleic acids) and complex lipids. Many biosynthetic reactions, including those for fatty acid synthesis, are reductive and hence require reducing agents. Reductive biosynthesis and complex polymer formation require energy input, usually in the form of ATP whose exergonic cleavage is coupled to endergonic biosynthesis.

Gluconeogenesis: Synthesis of New Glucose

Cells have evolved interesting mechanism so as not to have oxidative degradation reactions (which release energy) proceed at the same time and in the same cell as reductive biosynthesis (which requires energy input). Consider this scenario. You dive into a liver cell and find palmitic acid, a 16C fatty acid. From where did it come? Was it just synthesized by the liver cell or did it just enter the cell from a distant location such as adipocytes (fat cells). Should it be oxidized, which should happen if there is a demand for energy production by the cell, or should the liver cell export it, perhaps to adipocytes, which might happen if there is an excess of energy storage molecules? Cells have devised many ways to distinguish these opposing needs. One is by using a slightly different pool of redox reagents for anabolic and catabolic reactions. Oxidative degradation reactions typically use the redox pair NAD+/NADH (or FAD/FADH2) while reductive biosynthesis often uses phosphorylated variants of NAD+, NADP+/NADPH. In addition, cells often carry out competing reactions in different cellular compartments. Fatty acid oxidation of our example molecule (palmitic acid) occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, while reductive fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Fatty acids entering the cell destined for oxidative degradation are transported into the mitochondria by the carnitine transport system. This transport system is inhibited under conditions when fatty acid synthesis is favored. We will discuss the regulation of metabolic pathways in a subsequent section. One of the main methods, as we will see, is to activate or inhibit key enzymes in the pathways under a given set of cellular conditions. The key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, is inhibited when cellular conditions require fatty acid oxidation.

Which of the following statements about glycogen synthesis is ..

Fatty acid and isoprenoid/sterol biosynthesis: Acetyl-CoA is the source of carbon atoms for the synthesis of more complex lipids such as fatty acids, isoprenoids, and sterols. When energy needs in a cell are not high, citrate, the condensation product of oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA in the TCA cycle, builds up in the mitochondrial matrix. It is then transported by the citrate transporter (an inner mitochondrial membrane protein) to the cytoplasm, where it is cleaved back to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA by the cytoplasmic enzyme citrate lyase. The oxaloacetate is returned to the mitochondria by conversion first to malate (reduction reaction using NADH), which can move back into the mitochondria through the malate transporter, or further conversion to pyruate, using the cytosolic malic enzyme, which uses NADP+ to oxidize malate to pyruvate which then enters the mitochondria. The acetyl-CoA formed in the cytoplasm can then be used in reductive biosynthesis using NADPH as the reductant to form fatty acids, isoprenoids, and sterols. The NADPH for the reduction comes from the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway and from the reaction catalyzed by malic enzyme. The liver cells can still run the glycolytic pathway as the NADH/NAD+ ratio is low in the cytoplasm while NADPH/NADP+ ratio is high.

Mechanisms of UDP-Glucose Synthesis in Plants

Photosynthetic organisms can be divided into two classes:those which produce oxygen and those which do not. Photosyntheticbacteria do not produce oxygen (in fact some of them calledanaerobes cannot tolerate oxygen) and this is considered a moreprimitive type of photosynthesis (in which the hydrogen donor ishydrogen sulfide, lactate or other compounds, but not water).Plants and one type of bacteria (cyanobacteria) do produceoxygen, an evolutionarily more advanced type of photosynthesis(in which the hydrogen donor is water).

the biosynthesis of glucose from pyruvate involves one ..

Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.