Generating Hypotheses and Predictions
Thinking Skills Guide - Generating and Testing Hypotheses
they could not handle. The ease or difficulty with which students understand these models depends on the complexity of the relationships being communicated. Even preschoolers can understand scale models used to depict location in a room (DeLoache, 2004). Primary grade students can pretty readily overcome the influence of the appearance of the model to focus on and investigate the way it functions (Penner et al., 1997), but middle school students (and some adults) struggle to work out the positional relationships of the earth, the sun, and the moon, which involves not only reconciling different perspectives with respect to perspective and frame (what one sees standing on the earth, what one would see from a hypothetical point in space), but also visualizing how these perspectives would change over days and months (see, for example, the detailed curricular suggestions at the web site ).
How would you contrast and define hypothesis testing …
Frequently, students are expected to read or produce diagrams, often integrating the information from the diagram with information from accompanying text (Hegarty and Just, 1993; Mayer, 1993). The comprehensibility of diagrams seems to be governed less by domain-general principles than by the specifics of the diagram and its viewer. Comprehensibility seems to vary with the complexity of what is portrayed, the particular diagrammatic details and features, and the prior knowledge of the user.