Methods of health education and training: literature review
Meleis' Nursing Theories Evaluation: integrative review
Prior to understanding theories of educational leadership, it is important to begin with a comprehensive definition of educational leadership. In this article, educational leadership is the professional practice of a leader (or leaders) in an administrative role(s) working with, guiding, and influencing educators in a particular context toward improving learning and other educational processes in early childhood education centers and in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary institutions. These people are most often individuals or small teams employed as school site leaders, principals, and assistant or associate administrators. In early childhood, higher education, or other educational settings these individuals may serve as center director, head of school, department chair, academic dean, provost, or president. Theories of educational leadership have origins in the United States, where frameworks have been drawn largely from industry and commerce management principles. Leadership theories and practices drawn from business-oriented frames of reference have been adopted and adapted for use in educational settings in the United States and similarly developed nations. Therefore, theories of educational leadership have been derived from a diversity of interdisciplinary conceptualizations and models over time. As a result, theories of leadership can be considered emergent, dynamic, and subject to further evolution. In fact, every theory of educational leadership is subject to investigation by researchers in educational centers, schools, and university settings who seek to better understand the dynamics of leadership in a variety of educational contexts. Beyond seminal notions and ideations of educational leadership, developing and sometimes groundbreaking theories contribute to the existing canonical literature in the field. Nonetheless, most theories of educational leadership comprise key elements, which often include capabilities, approaches, and practices. A closer look at these elements further reveals theoretical types of educational leadership (e.g., styles, traits, behaviors), characteristics of educational leadership (e.g., management versus leadership, power, coercion, conceptual frameworks), or the activities or practices educational leaders engage in as expressions of their leadership in action (e.g., approaches, ways of leading). Each element is dependent on the educational context within which it occurs and warrants the consideration of multiple and international perspectives for relevance in diverse and global societies in the 21st century. Therefore, this article includes a representative sampling of influential textbooks, handbooks, journals, and relevant literature as exemplars of sources to explain, illuminate, introduce, interrogate, and evaluate a variety of educational leadership theories. Additionally, this article provides historical and philosophical foundations, general overviews, conceptual frameworks, supporting literature on large data sets, and multiple complementary international perspectives of the theories considered. Pertinent examples are provided from each area for further exploration, consideration, and study by readers.
which phase of Meleis' theories analysis is used; ..
comprehensively maps how meta-analysis and research synthesis methods have advanced in education. As noted in most texts on meta-analysis (many of which are listed in later sections), the authors observe that meta-analysts have played an important role in formalizing the methodology of research synthesis. To facilitate comparisons across studies, meta-analysis has allowed the bringing together of many seemingly diverse findings from individual primary research studies onto a common metric called an effect size. After appropriate statistical adjustments of individual effect sizes according to their respective study features, a cumulative effect size can be calculated that is indicative of the direction and the magnitude of the overall trend of findings. This is followed by tests to identify substantive, methodological, or contextual study features that may be potential moderators of the effect size. Meta-analysts have systematized the entire process of research synthesis by identifying the main tasks in each phase of a research synthesis, highlighting critical decision points within each phase, and allowing discussion of the relative merits of different choices at each decision point. They advocate explicit statement and justification of the decisions made at each stage of the research synthesis from hypothesis formulation, data selection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation to public presentation. There are several types of sensitivity analyses that can examine the dependence of the findings on the assumptions made about the nature of the data. Over the past three decades, meta-analysts have conducted numerous investigations to examine the robustness of their techniques and have explored ways of refining these techniques, as well as examining many substantive uses in the field of education. Meta-analysis now has become but one (important) method in integrative research synthesis. As a large proportion of primary research in education does not lend itself to a meta-analysis, there is a growing interest in methodologically inclusive discussions of quantitative and qualitative research synthesis in education. The field is now rich in methods, debates, and uses of research synthesis of primary literature. It is further continuing to become more diverse as more researchers are drawing insights from interpretive, participatory, and critical traditions to the process of synthesizing research.