2011 FSL's Friction Stir Welding on Littoral.
friction stir welding research paper There are.
In this work, successful friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 2219 using an adapted milling machine is reported. The downward or forging force was found to be dependent upon shoulder diameter and rotational speed whereas longitudinal or welding force on welding speed and pin diameter. Tensile strength of welds was significantly affected by welding speed and shoulder diameter whereas welding speed strongly affected percentage elongation. Metallographic studies revealed fine equiaxed grains in weld nugget and microstructural changes in thermo-mechanically affected zone were found to be the result of combined and interactive influences of frictional heat and deformation. A maximum joining efficiency of 75% was obtained for welds with reasonably good percentage elongation. TEM studies indicated coarsening and/or dissolving of precipitates in nugget. For the gas metal arc weld, SEM investigations revealed segregation of copper at grain boundaries in partially melted zone.
Friction Stir Welding Phd Thesis
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that uses a third body (tool) to join two faces of the work pieces. Heat is generated between the tool and work piece material due to friction of the tool shoulder with the work piece surface. This leads to rise in temperature which makes the material soft near the FSW tool. Then, both the work piece materials mechanically intermix at the place of the joint to produce the welding. FSW has been successfully used to join similar as well as dissimilar materials. It has also been effectively used to join materials that are difficult-to-weld materials by conventional fusion welding methods. Fusion welding when used to join dissimilar metals leads to defects like lack of fusion, distortion, crack formation, incomplete penetration and undercut. FSW, being solid state welding process, can successfully eliminate most of the defects which occur due to melting of material during welding. Some of the important parameters in FSW are tool rotation speed, transverse speed, tool pin dimension, tool tilt angle, offset of the tool from weld line and tool pin profile. From literature survey it was observed that these parameters affect the quality of weld. So, the influence of the parameters is needed to be established on the weld quality. In this context, the present work highlights the significance and effect of tool rotation speed, welding speed, tool pin profile and offset of the tool on weld quality. Different destructive and non-destructive tests have been carried out on the weld to get insight into the weld and its properties. Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a type of FSW, which is used to create a spot weld. The effect of tool rotation speed, dwell time and tool pin dimension has been investigated on spot welding of different materials. Three types of welding have been done in FSSW: similar metals, dissimilar metals and metal-polymer. Face centred central composite design of response surface methodology has been implemented to design the experimental layout for different experiments. Tensile strength test, bending strength test, visual inspection, radiography test and Vickers hardness test are the major tests that have been implemented on the weld to analyse the weld quality. Analysis of variance has been used to analyse the data, find the significant and non-significant parameters and estimate their effect.
Numerical modeling of friction stir welding: ..
Balasubramanian, "Influences of tool pin profile and welding speed on the formation of friction stir processing zone in AA2219 aluminium alloy", Journal of materials processing technology 200 ,PP-163–175( 2008 ).