Molecules | October 2017 - Browse Articles

Tea is a very popular and healthy nonalcoholic beverage worldwide. As an evergreen woody plant, the cultivation of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) is challenged by biotic stresses, and one of which is feeding of Ectropis oblique. In China, E. oblique infestation causes serious damages in many tea cultivation areas. Tea plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to cope with attack by E. oblique. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the response to E. oblique in tea plants, the differential gene expression profiles between the E. oblique damage-induced tea plants and undamaged control using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were obtained. A total of 1859 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 949 upregulated and 910 downregulated genes. Overall, 90 signal transduction genes, 100 anti-insect responsive transcription factors, 50 genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, 41 unigenes related to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) biosynthesis, and 8 caffeine biosynthesis genes were found to be differentially regulated. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that plant secondary metabolites and the signaling pathways may play an important role in defense against insects, and a closer examination at the expression of some crucial genes revealed differential expression patterns after feeding by E. oblique. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Our dataset provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for studying the resistance to E. oblique in tea, which will benefit our understanding of the overall mechanisms underlying inducible defenses responses, and may be useful to create novel prevention measures against insects to reduce pesticide usage in eco-friendly tea farming.

Molecules, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal.

AshiharaExpression of caffeine biosynthesis gene in tea (Camellia sinensis)

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (ACS …

N2 - Background: Major secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, caffeine, and theanine, are important components of tea products and are closely related to the taste, flavor, and health benefits of tea. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis is differentially regulated in different tissues during growth and development. Until now, little was known about the expression patterns of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways or their regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to generate expression profiles for C. sinensis tissues and to build a gene regulation model of the secondary metabolic pathways. Results: RNA sequencing was performed on 13 different tissue samples from various organs and developmental stages of tea plants, including buds and leaves of different ages, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. A total of 43.7 Gbp of raw sequencing data were generated, from which 347,827 unigenes were assembled and annotated. There were 46,693, 8446, 3814, 10,206, and 4948 unigenes specifically expressed in the buds and leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots, respectively. In total, 1719 unigenes were identified as being involved in the secondary metabolic pathways in C. sinensis, and the expression patterns of the genes involved in flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis were characterized, revealing the dynamic nature of their regulation during plant growth and development. The possible transcription factor regulation network for the biosynthesis of flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine was built, encompassing 339 transcription factors from 35 families, namely bHLH, MYB, and NAC, among others. Remarkably, not only did the data reveal the possible critical check points in the flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways, but also implicated the key transcription factors and related mechanisms in the regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Conclusions: Our study generated gene expression profiles for different tissues at different developmental stages in tea plants. The gene network responsible for the regulation of the secondary metabolic pathways was analyzed. Our work elucidated the possible cross talk in gene regulation between the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways in C. sinensis. The results increase our understanding of how secondary metabolic pathways are regulated during plant development and growth cycles, and help pave the way for genetic selection and engineering for germplasm improvement.

biosynthesis in tea plants, at the expression ..

AB - Background: Major secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, caffeine, and theanine, are important components of tea products and are closely related to the taste, flavor, and health benefits of tea. Secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Camellia sinensis is differentially regulated in different tissues during growth and development. Until now, little was known about the expression patterns of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways or their regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to generate expression profiles for C. sinensis tissues and to build a gene regulation model of the secondary metabolic pathways. Results: RNA sequencing was performed on 13 different tissue samples from various organs and developmental stages of tea plants, including buds and leaves of different ages, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. A total of 43.7 Gbp of raw sequencing data were generated, from which 347,827 unigenes were assembled and annotated. There were 46,693, 8446, 3814, 10,206, and 4948 unigenes specifically expressed in the buds and leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots, respectively. In total, 1719 unigenes were identified as being involved in the secondary metabolic pathways in C. sinensis, and the expression patterns of the genes involved in flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis were characterized, revealing the dynamic nature of their regulation during plant growth and development. The possible transcription factor regulation network for the biosynthesis of flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine was built, encompassing 339 transcription factors from 35 families, namely bHLH, MYB, and NAC, among others. Remarkably, not only did the data reveal the possible critical check points in the flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways, but also implicated the key transcription factors and related mechanisms in the regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Conclusions: Our study generated gene expression profiles for different tissues at different developmental stages in tea plants. The gene network responsible for the regulation of the secondary metabolic pathways was analyzed. Our work elucidated the possible cross talk in gene regulation between the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways in C. sinensis. The results increase our understanding of how secondary metabolic pathways are regulated during plant development and growth cycles, and help pave the way for genetic selection and engineering for germplasm improvement.

(D) Expression profiles of 13 ..

RNA sequencing was performed on 13 different tissue samples from various organs and developmental stages of tea plants, including buds and leaves of different ages, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. A total of 43.7 Gbp of raw sequencing data were generated, from which 347,827 unigenes were assembled and annotated. There were 46,693, 8446, 3814, 10,206, and 4948 unigenes specifically expressed in the buds and leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots, respectively. In total, 1719 unigenes were identified as being involved in the secondary metabolic pathways in C. sinensis, and the expression patterns of the genes involved in flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis were characterized, revealing the dynamic nature of their regulation during plant growth and development. The possible transcription factor regulation network for the biosynthesis of flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine was built, encompassing 339 transcription factors from 35 families, namely bHLH, MYB, and NAC, among others. Remarkably, not only did the data reveal the possible critical check points in the flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis pathways, but also implicated the key transcription factors and related mechanisms in the regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine ..

This study elucidated the global expression patterns of genes involved in metabolism, particularly secondary metabolism, and characterized their regulatory network in tea plants. We collected samples from 13 different organs and tissues at various developmental time points, including buds and leaves at various developmental stages and tissue samples of stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. After performing RNA-seq on these samples, we assembled a gene set that is more complete than previous versions and includes genes that are expressed in organs and tissues that have not been previously examined. Furthermore, we identified large sets of differentially expressed genes in each organ and tissue. In particular, the expression patterns of important genes involved in secondary metabolism were characterized, revealing the dynamic regulation of secondary metabolism during organ and tissue development. Using transcriptome data from the 13 tissues, we built co-expression networks of transcription factors and genes involved in flavonoid, caffeine, and theanine biosynthesis. Our study revealed the global gene expression profiles during organ and tissue development, and the possible regulatory network for genes important in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. This work expands the resources available for investigating the gene expression profiles of the organs and tissues of tea plant throughout the life cycle. The results not only aid our understanding of how the expression of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are regulated during organ and tissue development and tea plant growth, but it also represents a valuable reference for the design, formulation, and manufacturing of tea products in an industrial setting.

Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ..

Flavonoids, caffeine, and theanine are the three major secondary metabolites in C. sinensis, and they are important contributors to the flavor of tea. We focused our analyses on the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites and the differential expressions of the related genes in the 13 C. sinensis tissues. Based on the KEGG database, a total of 206 unigenes were annotated and found to be associated with the biosynthetic pathways of the three metabolites.