Our kids learn about photosynthesis in ..

Animals do not manufacture their own food and therefore, animals ultimately depend on plants photosynthesis to acquire glucose needed for their growth. Animals depend on starch and carbohydrates stored in plant roots, leaves and stems for their living. Furthermore, the oxygen used by animals during respiration is produced during photosynthesis.

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What is the definition of photosynthesis for kids

This process of making food is called photosynthesis

Light reaction and photophosphorylation
Pigments embedded on thylakoid membranes form photosystems. There are of two types: PS I P700, PS II P680. Components of photosystem I and II transfer the electrons from water to NADP via cyclic electron transfer or non-cyclic electron transfer. During electron transfer, the light energy captured by the photosynthetic organisms is transformed into the phosphate bond energy of ATP. This is called photophosphorylation. NADPH is generated during non-cyclic electron transfer.

Quantum mechanics explains efficiency of photosynthesis


This coloring page is a playful way to introduce the topic to your first grader. The picture diagram which shows the process of photosynthesis makes this worksheet highly recommended. The site also offers fill-in-the blanks worksheets to reinforce your kid’s understanding of the topic. Click here to view and download.


Aristotle (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Photosynthesis is a process where by energy from light is harvested and used to drive synthesis of organic carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts and can be divided into two steps: light reactions which require light and dark reactions which do not require light. During light reaction, light energy is captured by photosystems and electrons are transferred among the electron receptors. ATP and NADPH are generated. During dark reactions, CO2 is fixed using ATP and NADPH generated by the light reactions and organic carbohydrates are synthesized via the Calvin Cycle. When the CO2 is first fixed into a 3 carbon compound 3PGA, it is called C3 pathways and these plants are called C3 plants. The disadvantage of C3 plants is that they undergo photorespiration and thus waste some energy gained in light reactions. C4 cycle is the pathway adopted by C4 plants to bypass photorespiration.

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Dark reaction – Calvin cycle
Second step of photosynthesis is called Calvin’s cycle. Because it does not require light, so it is called dark reaction. During dark reaction, the ATP and NADPH generated by light reaction are consumed to fix carbon dioxide into organic carbohydrates. The first fixed carbohydrate is a three carbon compound 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA). The final product is a high-energy 3 carbon compound glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) which can be used to synthesize a broad range of organic molecules. An important intermediate molecule for carbon dioxide fixation is ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP), and the enzyme catalyzing the CO2 fixation is Rubisco.

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Additionally, the ancient photosynthesis products such as fossil fuels are used as a source of energy in modern world. The fossils such as coal, petroleum and natural gases involve the remains of ancient organisms which depended on photosynthesis many years ago. In fact, almost all life on this planet, indirectly or directly relies on photosynthesis as an energy, oxygen and food source, hence making photosynthesis among the most significant known biochemical processes.

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Part 1.
Function and Equation for Respiration
1. Click on the following links and use the information provided to write a definition of cellular respiration in your own words.2. Identify which living things carry out the process of respiration.3. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. Label the reactants and products. Where have you seen something like this equation before? Explain.4. How does the equation for cellular respiration compare with the equation for photosynthesis?5. What is ATP? Why is it an important product of cellular respiration?6. Using the same link from #5, write the chemical equation for the breakdown of ATP. Does the reaction release energy (exothermic) or absorb energy (endothermic)? Support your answer.7. Write the equation for the synthesis of ATP. Does the reaction release energy (exothermic) or absorb energy (endothermic)? Support your answer.
Use the following link to answer questions 8-10:
8. What is the main site of respiration in the cell?9. Make a sketch of the respiration organelle and label its parts.10. What energy molecules are produced in this respiration organelle?11. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration?12. Click on the �Cellular respiration� link and scroll down to fermentation. What is lactic acid fermentation? Where does it occur?13. What does a build up of lactic acid cause?14. What is alcoholic fermentation?15. In what industry is alcoholic fermentation important?16. Which produces the larger amount of energy � aerobic or anaerobic respiration? Support your answer with information from the reading.
17. Write a summary of cellular respiration. In your response: