Ethylene Synthesis and Sensitivity in Crop Plants - …

The hormone effects of ethylene on general plant growth were first noted in 1864 when leakage from gas street lighting systems caused stunting and deformation of nearby plants. In 1901 Neljubow identified the active component of the gas to be ethylene but it was not until 1934 that Gane identified that plants could synthesise ethylene and in 1935 Crocker proposed ethylene to be the hormone responsible for fruit ripening and senescence of vegetative tissues.

Ethylene and flooding stress in plants - ScienceDirect

Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG, trade name ReTain) blocks ethylene synthesis

Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in rice - ScienceDirect

Etephon (ethylene precursor) has a dual role in tuberization. It promotes already formed tubers by inhibiting stolon growth. Differently though it inhibits the formation of new tubers. Why this makes sense -Tubers may be a strategy for a plant to last through the parts of the year like the winter when conditions or adverse for the species. Theu ethylene being an indicator of difficulty procuring adequate oxygen from the environment, should promote th plant going into dormancy through building up of its tuber. New tubers or stolons are probably more vulnerable to adverse conditons having a great surface area per weight ratio. Thus the plant wisely concentrates on those tubers it already has rather than trying to branch out and create new ones.

Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in rice

Phosphinothricin is a broad spectrum herbicide and is effective against broad-leafed weeds. It acts as a competitive inhibitor
of the enzyme glutamine synthase which results in the inhibition of the enzyme glutamine synthase and accumulation of ammonia and finally the death of the plant. The disturbace in the glutamine synthesis also inhibits the photosynthetic activity.
The enzyme phosphinothricin acetyl transferase ( which was first observed in Streptomyces sp in natural detoxifying mechanism against phosphinothricin) acetylates phosphinothricin, and thus inactivates the herbicide. The gene encoding for phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (bar gene) was introduced in transgenic maize and oil seed rape to provide resistance against phosphinothricin.

Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signaling Networks

Certain genes from higher plants were also found to result in the synthesis of products possessing insecticidal activity. One of the examples is the Cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTi) which was introduced into tobacco, potato, and oilseed rape for develping transgenic plants. Earlier it was observed that the wild species of cowpea plants growing in Africa were resistant to attack by a wide range of insects. It was observed that the insecticidal protein was a trypsin inhibitor that was capable of destroying insects belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Orthaptera etc. Cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTi) has no effect on mammalian trypsin, hence it is non-toxic to mammals.

Regulation of wound ethylene synthesis in plants - …

Biosynthesis and Metabolism
Ethylene is produced in all higher plants and is produced from methionine in essentially all tissues. Production of ethylene varies with the type of tissue, the plant species, and also the stage of development. The mechanism by which ethylene is produced from methionine is a 3 step process (McKeon et al., 1995; Salisbury and Ross, 1992). ATP is an essential component in the synthesis of ethylene from methionine. ATP and water are added to methionine resulting in loss of the three phosphates and S-adenosyl methionine. 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACC-synthase) facilitates the production of ACC from SAM. Oxygen is then needed in order ro oxidize ACC and produce ethylene. This reaction is catalyzed by an oxidative enzyme called ethylene forming enzyme. The control of ethylene production has received considerable study. Study of ethylene has focused around the synthesis promoting effects of auxin, wounding, and drought as well as aspects of fruitripening. ACC synthase is the rate limiting step for ethylene production and it is this enzyme that is manipulated in biotechnology to delay fruit ripening in the "flavor saver" tomatoes (Klee and Lanahan, 1995).

Enzyme Catalyzing Ethylene Synthesis via 1 ..

Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from . EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.