Production of Synthesis Gases from Ethanol Steam Reforming Process

The actual mechanism for the formation of methanol has been an active area of research. By using radioactive 14CO2 it is believed that the majority, if not all, of the methanol is derived via CO2.

Most ethanol is produced using a four-step process:

Lower production costs—Methanol is cheap to produce relative to other alternative fuels.

The forward reaction (the production of ethanol) is exothermic.

M. Benito and co-workers [22] have studied a new catalyst for hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-ethanol. Three catalysts have been synthesized and tested for ethanol steam reforming. One of the developed catalysts was very active with 100% ethanol conversion at 700˚C. Ethanol reforming over Ni/MgO and Ni/CeO2 catalyst in molten carbonate fuel cell has been investigated by F. Frusteri et al. [23] . Both catalytic systems, at equilibrium conditions, are able to produce a rich hydrogen stream.

Syngas can also be used for the production of:

Since 5-carbon sugars degrade more rapidly than 6-carbon sugars, one way to decrease sugar degradation is to have a two-stage process. The first stage is conducted under mild process conditions to recover the 5-carbon sugars while the second stage is conducted under harsher conditions to recover the 6-carbon sugars. Unfortunately, sugar degradation is still a problem and yields are limited to around 272 L/t (80 gallons of ethanol/ton) of dry wood.

Production of ethanol from synthesis gas. - CAB Direct

A route for making fuel grade ethanol from natural gas has been proposed by Humphreys & Glasgow, Ltd., in conjunction with Monsanto and BASF. The route combines conventional steam reforming and methanol synthesis, Monsanto's process for making acetic acid from methanol, and BASF's technology for hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol.

Research on ethanol synthesis from syngas | SpringerLink

Most dilute acid processes are limited to a sugar recovery efficiency of around 50%. The reason for this is that at least two reactions are part of this process. The first reaction converts the cellulosic materials to sugar and the second reaction converts the sugars to other chemicals. Unfortunately, the conditions that cause the first reaction to occur also are the right conditions for the second to occur. Thus, once the cellulosic molecules are broken apart, the reaction proceeds rapidly to break down the sugars into other products—most notably furfural, a chemical used in the plastics industry. Not only does sugar degradation reduce sugar yield, but the furfural and other degradation products can be poisonous to the fermentation microorganisms.

ICM INC - Ethanol Production Process

"Ultimately our objective is to displace more than 90 percent of the plant's natural gas requirement."
But what if the goal of the ethanol producer or pulp and paper mill owner is to produce a rich syngas for the production of electricity?

In this review the issue of ethanol in food industries is addressed

Three main parameters may affect the H2 yield at equilibrium (YH2): temperature (T), total pressure (P), initial H2O/ethanol molar ratio (FWE). YH2 increases with T and FWE and decreases with pressure [20] .

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol

A. Akande et al. [28] studied kinetic modeling of hydrogen production by the catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a Ni-Al2O3 catalyst in a packed bed tubular reactor. A few kinetic models was purposed. A power law model was also tried to fit the experimental data. Hydrogen production from ethanol reforming over alumina-supported nickel catalysts modified with Ce, Mg, Zr and La was studied by M. C. S. Sanchez et al. [29] . The activity of the catalysts was explained in terms of the different acidity, nickel dispersion or support-nickel interaction.

ASMscience | Production of Ethanol fr

These conditions maximize the production of a liquid product called pyrolysis oil or py-oil, "which can be used in much the same way as a crude oil can be used," Koukoulas says.