The mRNA is the code that is translated into a functional protein...

14.6What steps in theactivation of amino acids and elongation of a polypeptide chain requirehydrolysis of high energy phosphate bonds?What enzymes catalyze these steps or which protein factorsare required?

GeneExpression and Protein Synthesis

Gene Expressionand Protein Synthesis

DNA is transcribed into RNA, which istranslated into protein.

c)Forall three polymerases, the TATA‑binding protein is a subunit of atranscription factor required for initiation (not necessarily the same factorfor each polymerase).

The site of protein synthesis is

RNApolymerase II, the GTFs, SRB proteins and other regulatory proteins have nowbeen shown to interact in large complexes in the nucleus (Table 3.1.6). Acomplex called the mediator transcription of DNA using purified RNApolymerase II and GTFs failed to increase the amount of transcription whentranscriptional activators were added. However, a component in nuclear extractswould confer the ability to respond; this was called the mediator ofactivation. When purified, it was discovered to contain several Srb proteins,Gal11, Rgr1 and other transcriptional regulators.


Protein Synthesis - Estrella Mountain Community College


Protein Synthesis
In prokaryotes mRNA is translated as it is being transcribed from DNA
In eukaryotes it has to be transported to the cytoplasm before translation
In prokaryotes the mRNA is used immediately but in eukaryotesit must be modified before it leaves the nucleus
Protein synthesis is also much faster in prokaryotes.

The Genetic Code: Translation of RNA code into protein | Back to Top


Ribosomes, Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code
Ribosomes
Free ribosomes are in the cytosol
Bound ribosomes started in the cytosol but attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Protein Synthesis - MCAT Review


Elongation
Termination
A stop codon is recognized and release factors stop translation
Instead of an amino acid, water is added
The new protein, mRNA and tRNA are released and the ribosome dissociates.
Polyribosomes
Polyribosomes or polysomes are ribosomes that can translate a single mRNA simulataneously
This creates many copies in very little time
Post-translation
After translation the protein must fold into a 3D shape before it is functional.

TRANSLATIONAL ACCURACY (Protein Synthesis) - …

The complex of proteins and DNAcould be demonstrated to be specific and active because when NTPs were added,specific transcription from the promoter was observed. We call the assembledprotein-DNA complex that is capable of specific initiation of transcription ata promoter a preinitiation complexinitiation complex

Protein synthesis: Errors rectified in retrospect

Experiments usingpurified GTIFs and RNA polymerase II examined the ability of these proteins toassemble a specific, active complex on a particular DNA segment containing apromoter and template for transcription. The complex was formed mostefficiently by adding the GTIFs and polymerase in the order shown in Fig.3.1.16.

Errors during the synthesis of Qβ proteins by ..

Prokaryotes synthesize more quickly, use mRNA immediately (eukaryotes must modify the original mRNA transcript before it leaves the nucleus), and translate mRNA as it is transcribed from DNA (in eukaryotes the mRNA must go the cytoplasm before translation.