# Hypothesis Testing in Equivalence and Noninferiority Trials

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## 22/12/2017 · Equivalence Trials Hypotheses ..

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### In Equivalence Hypothesis Testing the null ..

Blackwelder (Controlled Clinical Trials 1982; 3: 345-353) proposes a solution. If a differencebetween the two treatments, call it D, is specified that *practically* represents equivalence, then thenull hypothesis can be restated to include the specified difference. In other words, that: Ps isgreater than or equal to Pn + D. Rejection of this hypothesis implies that the difference betweenthe standard and novel treatments is less than or equal to D, indicating equivalence.

### Sample size based on null hypothesis of non-equivalence

This equivalence of confidence intervals and statistical significance is a well-known corollary of statistical first principles, and we will not explain it further here. But we stress that confidence intervals do not represent an advance on null hypothesis testing, if they are interpreted only in relation to positive and negative values or, equivalently, the zero or null value.

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