for the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous ..
J., 1969, Disposition of neurotransmitters in ..
Mechanisms of enzyme catalysis.
The function of enzymes as biocatalysts, mechanisms of regulations.
Kinetics of enzyme reactions.
Basic kinetic characteristics of enzymes, mechanisms of action of reversible and irreversible inhibitors.
The mechanisms of anaerobic and aerobic processing of glucose, the mechanism of ATP formation, the interconnection with other metabolic pathways, regulations.
The mechanism of de novo glucose synthesis, precursors, importance, regulations.
The pentose phosphate shunt and metabolism of glycogen.
The importance of the pentose phosphate shunt for cellular activities, synthesis and degradation of glycogen, regulations.
The metabolism of fructose and galactose.
Mechanisms of interconversions between sugars, enzyme deficiencies.
Regulations of sugar metabolism.
Interrelationships in sugar metabolism, key enzymes, types of regulations. Hormonal regulations by insulin and glucagon.
Basic terms in thermodynamics, the importance of the high-energy bond.
The role of ATP in conservation and interconversion of chemical energy, the respiratory chain and Mitchell’s chemiosmotic theory, the mechanism of ATP synthesis using the proton gradient.
Mitochondrial transport systems.
Mechanisms of in/out transports in mitochondria.
The citric acid cycle.
The mechanism of oxidation of acetyl-CoA, the production of reduced coenzymes for the respiratory chain, the entry and exit of substrates in/from the cycle.
The synthesis and degradation of fatty acids.
The mechanism of fatty acid biosynthesis and relationship with other metabolic pathways, β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and peroxisomes.
The metabolism of acylglycerols and sphingolipids.
The synthesis and degradation, their role in pathology.
Cholesterol and its transport.
Overview of cholesterol biosynthesis and its regulation, lipoprotein complexes transporting cholesterol, use of cholesterol for syntheses and its degradation.
Regulations of lipid metabolism.
Interrelationships in lipid metabolism, key enzymes, types of regulations.
The metabolism of amino acids.
The mechanisms of syntheses and degradations of amino acids.
Transformations of amino acids into specialized products.
The use of amino acids as substrates for syntheses of hormones and other biologically active compounds.
The biosynthesis and degradation of proteins.
The role of ribosomes, the initiation, elongation, and termination phase of the proteosynthesis. Proteinases and their classification, the mechanism of action of serine proteinases, proteasome.
The synthesis of urea.
The transport of nitrogen between tissues and its excretion.
The metabolism of nucleotides.
The synthesis and degradation of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Porphyrines and bile pigments.
The synthesis of heme and its degradation, the formation and excretion of bile pigments.
The iron metabolism.
The mechanism of absorption and its regulations, the iron recyclation, the importance in pathologies.
The integration of metabolic pathways.
Interconnections of metabolic pathways in individual organs, the response of an organism to fasting.
Subcellular compartmentalization of the metabolism.
Intracellular organels as sites of specific metabolic pathways.
Vitamins as precursors of coenzymes, vitamins soluble in water and in fat.
Minerals and trace elements.
Biologically important minerals and trace elements, their functions in biological structures and regulations.
Glycoproteins and mucins.
The structure, sugar components and biological functions of glycoproteins. The chemical compositions, types, and functions of mucins.
Types of immunoglobulins and the structure of antibodies, the antigen-antibody interaction, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.
The use of the antigen-antibody interactions for analytical purposes.
The classification of blood plasma proteins.
Coagulation and fibrinolysis.
The mechanism of the fibrin formation and the role of proteinases, regulatory mechanisms, biochemistry and physiology of fibrinolysis.
The composition of extracellular fluids.
Specific chemical compositions of individual extracellular fluids.
Mechanisms of signal transduction into the cell.
Hormones as signal molecules, types of cellular receptors and their functions.
Intracellular signalization by calcium.
The importance of calcium for signal transduction, the calcium binding proteins, signal cascades of calcium.
Biochemistry of protein hormones.
The synthesis and degradation of peptide and protein hormones, the hormonal cascade.
Biochemistry of thyroids hormones.
The synthesis and conversion, its regulations, biological processes regulated by thyroids hormones.
Biochemistry of steroid hormones.
Basic mechanisms of their syntheses, main metabolic pathways regulated by steroid hormones.
The metabolism of erythrocytes.
Specifics of the erythrocyte metabolism, different kinds of haemoglobin – fetal haemoglobin and pathological forms.
The metabolism of leukocytes and thrombocytes.
The role of NADPH oxidase in protection against bacterial infection, important mediators.
Biochemistry of heart.
The energy metabolism, the structure and function at the molecular level, the mechanism of pathological processes and their biochemical detection.
Biochemistry of lung.
Main biochemical pathways, surfactant and its function, the effects of oxygen concentration changes.
Biochemical mechanisms of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Proteins of extracellular matrix.
The role of collagen, elastin, and other proteins in extracellular matrix, their synthesis and degradation, enzymes and inhibitors.
Biochemistry of skin.
The composition and function, the formation of sweat, the synthesis of melanins.
Biochemistry of bone.
Main components, the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism in bone.
Biochemistry of adipose tissue.
The role of the brown adipose tissue, the mechanism of the heat production at the mitochondrial level, the function of uncoupling proteins. The hormones of the adipose tissue.
Biochemistry of muscles.
Contractile proteins, molecular aspects of contractility, sources of energy.
Biochemistry of acidobasic regulations.
Buffers, acidosis and alkalosis, mechanisms of compensations, acid-base disorders.
Biochemistry of kidney.
Specific metabolic processes, the renin angiotensin system, urine excretion.
Pathological components of urine.
The physiological and pathological composition of urine.
Biochemistry of GIT.
Mechanisms of digestion, enzymes involved in digestion.
Biochemistry of liver.
Overview of metabolic pathways in liver, the function of liver in regulations of metabolism.
Detoxification of autogenous metabolic products, detoxification of xenobiotics, organ and subcellular localization.
Biochemistry of CNS and neurotransmitters.
The synthesis and inactivation of catecholamines, amino acids and biogenic amines as mediators. Acetylcholine, its function and inactivation.
Biochemistry of vision.
The mechanism of the light perception, the signal transduction to brain.
Biochemical screening methods.
Principals of particular screening methods and their importance for medicine.
Biochemistry of oxidative stress.
Free radicals, cellular damage, and antioxidants.
Metabolic aspects of diabetes.
Effects of insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids and catecholamines on the blood glucose level. Overview of metabolic changes in diabetes.
metabolic degradation of norepinephrine as ..
brasiliensis transcriptome, some enzymes were found that are involved in the deamination of purines and subsequent degradation of urea: urate oxidase, allantoicase and urease.