Enzymatic Synthesis of Flavonoids will be available on
Enzymatic synthesis of a CCK-8 tripeptide fragment in organic media.
Peptides are molecules of paramount importance in the fields of health care and nutrition. Several technologies for their production are now available, among which chemical and enzymatic synthesis are especially relevant. The present review pretends to establish a non-biased appreciation of the advantages, potentials, drawbacks and limitations of both technologies. Chemical synthesis is thoroughly reviewed and their potentials and limitations assessed, focusing on the different strategies and challenges for large-scale synthesis. Then, the enzymatic synthesis of peptides with proteolytic enzymes is reviewed considering medium, biocatalyst and substrate engineering, and recent advances and challenges in the field are analyzed. Even though chemical synthesis is the most mature technology for peptide synthesis, lack of specificity and environmental burden are severe drawbacks that can in principle be successfully overcame by enzyme biocatalysis. However, productivity of enzymatic synthesis is lower, costs of biocatalysts are usually high and no protocols exist for its validation and scale-up, representing challenges that are being actively confronted by intense research and development in this area. The combination of chemical and enzymatic synthesis is probably the way to go, since the good properties of each technology can be synergistically used in the context of one process objective.
Enzymatic synthesis of Leu- and Met-enkephalin.
Aromatic moieties containing oligoesters have been synthesized by enzymatic polymerization of AB-type alkylenehydroxybenzoates via different polymerization methods. Oligo(2-hydroxyethoxy benzoate) (OHEBA) was obtained with number average molecular weights (M-n) around 2000 g mol(-1). A low degree of polymerization was achieved or no oligomer formation was observed from the enzymatic reaction of compounds modified by one or more methoxy groups. MALDI-TOF MS analysis suggests that the most dominant species in the resulting HEBA oligomer samples are ester/-OH end groups. The thermal properties of the enzymatically produced oligoesters were fully characterized using DSC, TGA and WAXD as well as rheology studies and have been compared with higher molecular weight polymers prepared by conventional polycondensation reactions from the same p-hydroxy benzoic acid derivative. These semi-crystalline oligomers and polymers were found to be mimicking the thermoplastic aromatic/aliphatic polyester regarding their macromolecular structure and thermal behavior. The molecular weight of the obtained AB-type OHEBA was successfully increased to 13 050 g mol(-1) by using it as a macromolecular monomer in sequential polymerization.
enzymatic synthesis explanation free
The efficient utilization of dye-labeled nucleotides by DNA polymerases constitutes an important prerequisite for single molecule DNA sequencing-by-synthesis technologies. Here, we demonstrate processive enzymatic DNA synthesis, thousands of nucleotide incorporations in length, using exclusively terminal phosphate-labeled nucleotides. Unique fluorophores, suitable for single molecule detection and differentiated by their emission spectra, were used for each of the four nucleobases. The kinetic properties of DNA polymerization were similar to those for unmodified dNTPs.
Enzymatic synthesis, amplification, and application of …
In the chemical synthesis of glycopeptides, glycosylation can be obtained either by using glycosylated amino acids or by conjugation of the final carbohydrate unit to the full-length peptide ().