This isthe subject of the next discussion...

As per the "Walstad Method" (basically, a twist on what was known by old timers as the "German Method"), this method depends upon the plants (along with fish wastes) to do most of the work for maintaining the aquarium chemistry and water quality (as far as the Nitrogen Cycle ONLY) while the aquarium keeper provides circulation, some ferts and mineral cations that are not supplied or kept up with adequately by fish food, and cleanings ONLY when necessary.

Multiplicity of NDH-1 Complexes in Cyanobacteria, pp.

It is a complex process occurring in plants, algae, as well as bacteria such as cyanobacteria.

The color of the light depends on its

(2)Liquid Nutrients: these can be the simple regular dosing of Flourish (which, as with root tabs, is a non-specific overall nutrient supplement). Or, it can be a bit more complicated with individual nutrients such as Flourish Iron, Potassium, etc.

2-10), than for the decomposition of organic substances.

In fact the medical community is now utilizing these SHO bulbs (& similar full spectrum lights, which is also often making the SHO in short supply) due to increasing studies that show better immune function, mental health, and more. Similar animal studies show like results. I learned of this when inquiring as to why the SHO lights were currently unavailable from the North American distributor, and they pointed out that several hospitals and convalescent homes had purchased over 1500 of these lights. They pointed out the simplicity of these Super High Output bulbs are quickly making these a favorite of the medical community for their full spectrum light needs (I now use a few 65 Watt 6400K SHOs in my home after learning this and there is certainly a difference).

There is however a limit to the amount of energy consumption that can be tolerated by nature.

Energy biotechnology with cyanobacteria - ScienceDirect

Cyanobacteria, a photosynthetic organism, is one of the oldest lifeforms on the planet and can be found growing in many different conditions, Jensen says.

Energy biotechnology with cyanobacteria

For example, although it’s not in a recoverable form, there are two species of cyanobacteria found in the earth’s oceans that naturally produce the equivalent of 15 million barrels of hydrocarbon equivalent daily.

Harvesting solar energy via photosynthesis is one of Nature's ..

There is even a somewhat beneficial side to some forms of cyanobacteria. And you thought it was all bad! Well, you're almost right, but not 100%. Cyanobacteria is an early colonizer of substrates and an indicator the microbial biomass is progressing. How far these growths should be allowed to progress is discussed further on in this chapter.

The FK506-Binding Proteins (FKBPs) of the Thylakoid: Emerging Roles in Plant Photosynthesis, pp.

Cyanobacteria; Blue Green/Red Slime Algae in …

It is also important to compare apples to apples if you are considering a sponge filter over, say, a canister filter. For instance, a low quality sponge material like Lees #13390 sponge filter is not going to come close to a SunSun 402 filter for a 60 gallon aquarium, for example.
However, a high volume ATI Lustar Hydro Sponge #5 will compare reasonably well without some of the draw backs (the Hydro Pond #2 or a stacked Hydro Sponge #5 will actually out perform the aforementioned canister filters).

Existing problems cannot therefore be resolved without modification of existing social systems.

Cyanobacteria: Omics and Manipulation ..

*Chlorophyll A; A type of chlorophyll that is the most common photosynthetic organisms predominant in all higher plants, red & green algae higher plants, red & green algae. It is best at absorbing wavelength in the 400-450 nm & 650-700 nm

(It takes a lot ofenergy to do the next step, which is to make sugar!)

Increased Photochemical Efficiency in Cyanobacteria via …


Approximately 5.7 x 1024 J of solar energy are irradiated to the earth's surface on an annual basis.