DNA Transcription and Protein Synthesis

Kruger T, Ilioaia C, Johnson MP, Ruban AV, Papagiannakis E, Horton P, van Grondelle R (2012) Controlled disorder in plant light-harvesting complex II explains its photoprotective role. Biophysical Journal 102: 2669-2676

Protein Immobilization Strategies for Protein Biochips.

Living Radical Polymerization as a Tool for the Synthesis of Polymer-Protein/Peptide Bioconjugates.

Chemical Biology: Dressed-up Proteins.

Hi, my name is Mark Hasell and I am in grade 12 at Catholic Central High school in Lethbridge. In my free time I enjoy skiing and water sports such as waterskiing and knee boarding. I am in iGEM because I have a great fasciation in the field of biology and the opportunity to learn more about synthetic biology and take part in hands on labs was too much to pass up. What I like most about iGEM is the opportunity to work in a real lab, however I am also interested in the wiki coding part of iGEM as well. I would like to pursue a career in the medical profession after I finish high school. In my spare time I enjoy reading books by Vince Flynn.

S., The synthesis of bioactive indolocarbazoles related to K-252a.

Wentworth M, Murchie EH, Gray JE, Villegas D, Pastenes C, Pinto M, Horton P. (2006) Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress. II. Acclimation of photosynthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 699-709

Bio-Pro Bio-Active Peptides (BAP's) are cleaved protein ..

Horton P (2000) Prospects for crop improvement through the genetic manipulation of photosynthesis: morphological and biochemical aspects of light capture. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 475-485

Glossary- Biology terms: Human ..

Molecular transitions regulate the structure and function the photosynthetic membrane in order to adapt its function to different environmental and metabolic conditions. Multidisciplinary investigations have provided insights into these transitions, combining biochemical and structural analysis of purified proteins with spectroscopic, physiological and genetic analyses of intact systems. In order to maximise their use of light energy in photosynthesis, plants have light-harvesting antennae, which collect light quanta and deliver them to the reaction centres, where energy conversion takes place. The functioning of the antenna responds to the changes in the intensity of sunlight encountered in nature. In shade, light is efficiently harvested in photosynthesis. However, in full sunlight or whenever there is a restriction on the metabolic demand for photosynthetic product (eg in cold conditions), much of the energy absorbed is not needed and vitally important switches to specific antenna states safely dissipate the excess energy as heat. This is essential for plant survival because it provides protection against the potential photo-damage of the photosynthetic membrane. The understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in photoprotection has the potential to be exploited to produce crops plant better adapted to harsh environmental and climatic conditions.

DNA Interactive Video Animations - Bio-Alive

Particularly important is that the environment is never constant- there are fluctuations in levels of sunlight, temperature and rainfall. Plants record, memorise and (try to) predict their environments to ensure that they always have enough energy storage from photosynthesis to power their growth and development. For example, plants have to determine the size of their reproductive sinks (i.e. grain capacity) in advance, predicting what the photosynthetic rate will be to give maximum grain filling. Over-estimation of future photosynthesis results in poor grain filling and/or poor quality grain; under-estimation of future photosynthesis results in a decrease in the efficiency of solar energy use and losses of potential productivity. Trade-offs inevitably result from optimisation of the internal regulatory mechanisms involved (dynamic range, kinetics, precision), and this readily explains the apparent under-performance of photosynthesis. Consequently, there may be opportunities for the breeding of higher yielding crops by tailoring regulatory responses to specific agricultural scenarios, where man’s intervention has moderated some of the environmental constraints on productivity, by irrigation, provision of fertilisers and elimination of weeds. A key point is that optimisation will vary according to plant species or variety, the climate and season, the agronomic practice, the locality and so on. Thus, significant benefits will come from understanding at the molecular and genetic levels how to alter the optimisation of the biochemistry and physiology of individual leaves, their performance in the whole plant, and the way individual plants interact in the crop canopy. Indeed, such knowledge may also be necessary to offset the inherent conservatism of plants that could thwart current attempts to increase photosynthetic efficiency, and hence yield, by manipulation of with the basic biochemical processes of carbon assimilation.