Dual coding theory and education.

The old and popular notion of the brain as a kind of “muscle” which strengthens with repeated use (also known as faculty theory) is now largely discredited. Research, dating back to William James towards the end of the 19th Century, shows that long hours spent memorizing does not build up the powers of memory at all, and, on the contrary, may even diminish it. This is not to say that individual memories cannot be strengthened by repetition, but that, as James found, daily training in the memorization of a poetry of one author, for example, does not improves a person’s ability to learn the poetry of another author, or poetry in general.

3 Working memory and dual-coding.

A dual coding view of imagery and verbal processes in reading comprehension.

Bilingual Dual Coding Theory and Memory | SpringerLink

... in frontal areas (Golby et al., 2001; Kelley et al., 1998), reflecting increased encoding requirements for pictures, or the dual coding of pictures in visual and verbal formats (Kelley et al., 1998; =-=Paivio & Csapo, 1973-=-). In addition to increased frontal activation, pictures, particularly complex scenes, strongly activate hippocampal and parahippocampal structures (Kelley et al., 1998; Henke, Buck, Weber, & Wieser, ...

What is Dual Coding Theory? - YouTube

...ted by short-term memory. However, if one processes an item in both the verbal and pictorial channels, one can remember ? plus y items. This specific phenomenon is known as the additivity hypothesis (=-=Paivio 1975-=-). In demonstrating this effect, Paivio (1975) presented participants with a long list of items involving pictures and words, and subsequently asked them to recall as many items as possible. There wer...

Bilingual Dual Coding Theory and Memory - …

Two organizations that are making the leap to dual coding are Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee, and the University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics. In both cases, the goal is to get coders up to speed and ensure the proper systems and processes are in place to lessen the blow on revenues and productivity.

Dual Coding Theory | Nervous System | Psychological …

Because of the associative nature of memory, encoding can be improved by a strategy of organization of memory called elaboration, in which new pieces of information are associated with other information already recorded in , thus incorporating them into a broader, coherent narrative which is already familiar. An example of this kind of elaboration is the use of mnemonics, which are verbal, visual or auditory associations with other, easy-to-remember constructs, which can then be related back to the data that is to be remembered. Rhymes, acronymns, acrostics and codes can all be used in this way. Common examples are “Roy G. Biv” to remember the order of the colours of the rainbow, or “Every Good Boy Deserves Favour” for the musical notes on the lines of the treble clef, which most people find easier to remember than the original list of colours or letters. When we use mnemonic devices, we are effectively passing facts through the hippocampus several times, so that it can keep strengthening the associations, and therefore improve the likelihood of subsequent memory .

Dual coding and bilingual memory - ScienceDirect

Troyer et al (1999) make a distinction between associative source information and organizational source information. Associative source information is more closely tied to the stimulus itself (e.g., whether a male or female voice spoke a particular word), while organizational source information is more independent of the stimulus (e.g., where on the screen a word appeared). One would suspect that associative source information is more likely to be processed at the same time and through the same pathways as the item itself. Therefore we are likely to see less of a discrepancy between item and source memory when the source-monitoring task involves associative source information than organizational information. Modality should be closely bound to the item itself (i.e., associative source information), and therefore less vulnerable to memory errors. This is particularly true in the current experiment, since items are presented in different forms in the two modalities under investigation (i.e., as pictures in the visual modality and as words in the auditory modality). The dual-coding hypothesis of memory (Galotti, 1999, pp. 287-288) predicts that the pictures will be stored verbally as well as visually, but the visual image should help differentiate visual from auditory stimuli during the source-monitoring task. The close association between stimuli and modality of presentation, combined with the fact that source is being processed incidentally in the current experiment, led us to predict a close relationship between item and source memory performance across conditions.