NOTE: DNA synthesis is a one way process.

Gold nanorods of controllable aspect ratio were synthesized by a seed-mediated, surfactant-assisted, three-step protocol, in which the size and nature of the seeds were varied.


The base sequence in a DNA molecule, represented by the letters A T C G, make up the genetic code.

Protein synthesis :: DNA from the Beginning

Many RTs are available from commercial suppliers. and Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (M-MuLV, MMLV) Reverse Transcriptase are RTs that are commonly used in molecular biology workflows. lacks 3´ → 5´ exonuclease activity. is a recombinant M-MuLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNase H activity and increased thermostability. It can be used to synthesize first strand cDNA at higher temperatures than the wild-type M-MuLV. The enzyme is active up to 50°C, providing higher specificity, higher yield of cDNA and more full-length cDNA product, up to 12 kb in length.

Transcription is the first of overall two protein synthesis steps

The synthesis of DNA from an RNA template, via reverse transcription, produces complementary DNA (cDNA). Reverse transcriptases (RTs) use an RNA template and a short primer complementary to the 3' end of the RNA to direct the synthesis of the first strand cDNA, which can be used directly as a template for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This combination of reverse transcription and PCR (RT-PCR) allows the detection of low abundance RNAs in a sample, and production of the corresponding cDNA, thereby facilitating the cloning of low copy genes. Alternatively, the first-strand cDNA can be made double-stranded using DNA Polymerase I and DNA Ligase. These reaction products can be used for direct cloning without amplification. In this case, RNase H activity, from either the RT or supplied exogenously, is required.

The DNA code is a . Each triplet, a group of three bases, codes for a specific amino acid:

DNA, RNA and protein Synthesis Quiz Flashcards | Quizlet

The use of engineered RTs improves the efficiency of full-length product formation, ensuring the copying of the 5' end of the mRNA transcript is complete, and enabling the propagation and characterization of a faithful DNA copy of an RNA sequence. The use of the more thermostable RTs, where reactions are performed at higher temperatures, can be very helpful when dealing with RNA that contains high amounts of secondary structure.

DNA replication & protein synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

This enzyme needs the 4 deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates, primer DNA, and template DNA and directs the synthesis of a DNA molecule following the sequence of the template strand.

coli's DNA Polymerase I, not the main replication enzyme (it works primarily in DNA repair).

DNA/Protein sythesis/Molecular Biology Flashcards | Quizlet

coli, DNA polymerase I (which has both 5' ---> 3' and 3' ---> 5' exonuclease activity in addition to its polymerase activity) removes the RNA primer and simultaneously synthesizes new DNA to replace it.

α appears to have DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity (primase-like enzyme: see Primase below).

DNA and Protein Synthesis - BioTopics

This begins with DNA in the nucleus and ends with the final protein in the cytoplasm.
To do this we need to be able to read the genetic code just as tRNA can.

DNA polymerasethen returns to synthesize DNA where the RNA primer was.

DNA and protein synthesis AQA B2 by zuba102 - …

There are two types of RNA that need to be known for this topic. The first is messenger RNA, or mRNA. This is formed in the nucleus of the . It rewrites the sequence of bases of a section of DNA in a process called transcription.